Several dozen people have rallied in Moscow on a snowy day in support of crusading journalists who have been attacked.
Sunday's protest denounced authorities for the failure to properly investigate the attacks.
The demonstrators included Mikhail Beketov, the founder and editor of a paper in Moscow's suburb of Khimki who campaigned against building a highway through a local forest.
Beketov, who was brutally beaten in a 2008 attack that damaged his brain and left him unable to speak, attended the protest in a wheelchair.
Beketov's lawyer, Andrei Stolbunov, said that journalists have been a prime target for corrupt officials.
This month's savage beatings of reporter Oleg Kashin and environmental activist Konstantin Fetisov were linked by some to the same dispute over the Khimki forest.