Hamas complained to Egypt on Friday after Israel suspended part of a Cairo-brokered truce agreement by halving Palestinian access to fishing waters in response to a rocket attack from the Gaza Strip.
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Thursday's salvo at the Israeli border town of Sderot, which caused no casualties, coincided with a visit to Israel and the West Bank by US President Barack Obama.
It was claimed by a small al-Qaida-linked faction that has challenged the Islamist Hamas group's rule in the Gaza Strip.
Israel, which holds Hamas responsible for any violence emanating from the enclave, retaliated by shutting the Kerem Shalom commercial crossing on the Gaza border and by enforcing a newly restricted 5 km (3 mile) wide fishing zone.