HANUKKA MENORAHS in Jerusalem 311 (R).
(photo credit: REUTERS)
Hanukka is widely observed as a holiday that celebrates religious freedom. The
persecuted Jews of ancient Israel waged war against their Syrian/Hellenistic
oppressors, and won the right to rededicate the Temple and to restore Jewish
worship and religious practices.
Religious freedom is a wonderful thing.
It allows us to worship God freely, without being coerced or intimidated by
Religious freedom is not a self-evident fact of life. As Jews, we
have experienced many circumstances in which we did not enjoy this basic right.
Medieval Iberia expelled Jews and Muslims, believing that only Catholics have
truth and that “infidels” must not be tolerated.
Saudi Arabia today does
not tolerate non-Muslims practicing their religions freely.
throughout history (including our own times), various groups have not granted
religious freedom to “outsiders.” Only the faithful had rights in this world;
only the faithful would be blessed in the world to come. The infidels were
deprived of rights in this world, and were doomed to perdition in the world to
The great 19th-century Rabbi Eliyahu Benamozegh of Livorno pointed
out an obvious – but startling – fact. In his book Israel and Humanity, he noted
that historic Christianity and Islam claimed to be universal religions – and
yet, they were not universal at all. They only made room for fellow believers.
“Infidels” were persecuted, even murdered. Those of other religions were denied
equal rights in this world and were deemed to be unworthy of blessing in the
world to come.
Judaism – which is often depicted as a small, parochial
tradition – is actually the religion that is the most universal. The Torah
teaches that all who accept the basic Noahide laws of morality are loved by God.
The righteous of all nations have a place in the world to come. While not
condoning outright idolatry, Judaism leaves much theological space for non-Jews
to achieve spiritual happiness and fulfillment. All humanity is created in the
image of God.
WHEN WE light the Hanukka candles, we need to remember the
value of religious freedom. We also need to remind ourselves – and others – that
religious freedom is a two-way street. It allows us to claim the right to
practice our religion freely; but it also entails that we grant this same
freedom to others who do not share our religious beliefs and
Religious freedom is a problematic concept for those who are
sure that they, and only they, have the absolute Truth. Such people tend to be
extreme and intolerant. Since only they have the Truth, they have no patience
for those who have other beliefs; indeed, they don’t see the need to grant
rights to others. They feel compelled to crush the “opposition,” either by
converting them, by coercing them, by oppressing them, or even by murdering
them. For the single- minded bigot, religious freedom exists only to serve his
interests and to guarantee his freedom.
There is no mutual commitment to
religious freedom for others.
Even within the Jewish community, some
people take this extreme view of religious freedom.
They are happy to
enjoy the benefits of freedom; but they hold those Jews whose beliefs and
observances are different from theirs with disdain. Those who see themselves as
the only Torah-true Jews do not see a need to make religious space for others.
On the contrary, they feel that the others should be brought into their line,
even by means of coercion. They discredit those who are not in their
In Israel, where such extremists exert political power, they
initiate coercive action and legislation that impinge on the freedom of
Since they are convinced that they alone have Truth, they feel
warranted in coercing others to follow in their ways. Their mentality is similar
to extremists of other religions who find it difficult or impossible to let
others enjoy religious freedom.
Religious freedom is not such a simple
concept, after all. While it protects each of our rights to practice religion
freely, it also demands that we respect the rights of others to do
Religious freedom is the hallmark of a tolerant and wise nation
and community. It is a lofty ideal to which all should aspire.
celebrate Hanukka, let us seriously celebrate the value of religious freedom.
Let us serve God with purity, with commitment, with spiritual heroism. And let
us appreciate that all human beings also deserve the right of religious freedom.
When extremists seek to deprive others of this freedom, all society suffers a
loss of freedom and dignity.
The Hanukka lights remind us that we can
bring light into a dark world. We can hope that our lights will inspire others
and bring them closer to the Almighty.
“Not by might, nor by power, but
by My spirit said the Lord of hosts.” (Zechariah 4:6) The writer is founder and
director of the Institute for Jewish Ideas and Ideals (www.jewishideas.org), an
institute dedicated to intellectually vibrant, compassionate and inclusive
Orthodox Judaism. He is also rabbi emeritus of the historic Spanish and
Portuguese Synagogue of New York City.