Syrian reactor 224.
(photo credit: Courtesy ISIS)
The US provided Israel with information on Syrian air defenses before an attack on a suspected nuclear site in Syria, Aviation Week & Space Technology reported in its November 26 edition.
According to military and aerospace industry officials, The US was not actively involved in the September 6 attack but provided Israel with advice and monitored electronic emissions from Syria during the strike.
Engagement of the main target, a suspected nuclear reactor being developed at Dayr az-Zawr, was preceded by an attack on a Syrian radar site near the Turkish border, meant to knock out Syrian air defenses.
This was carried out with precision bombs and electronic warfare, the paper reported, and incapacitated Syria's air-defense radar system for the entire duration of the strike.
Analysts said the electronic attack involved both remote air-to-ground means and infiltration through computer-to-computer links. They added that it was unlikely that a part of Syria's electrical grid was shut down.
"There also were some higher-level, non-tactical penetrations, either direct or as diversions and spoofs of the Syrian command and control capability, done through network attack," a US intelligence specialist said.
Pinchas Buchris, director-general of the Defense Ministry told the paper that "offensive and defensive network warfare is one of the most interesting new areas. I can only say we're following the [network attack] technology with great care. I doubted this [technology] five years ago. But we did it. Now everything has changed."
Meanwhile, an Israeli nuclear expert said on Thursday that the main target of the Israeli attack was most likely a plant for assembling a nuclear bomb, challenging other analysts' conclusions that it housed a North Korean-style nuclear reactor.
Tel Aviv University chemistry professor Uzi Even, who worked in the past at Israel's Dimona nuclear reactor, said satellite pictures of the site taken before the Israeli strike showed no sign of the cooling towers and chimneys characteristic of reactors.
The absence of telltale features of a reactor convinced him the building must have housed something else, he said. And a rush by the Syrians after the attack to bury the site under tons of soil suggests that the facility was a bomb-assembly plant left leaking lethal doses of radiation by the Israeli attack.
Israel has maintained an almost total official silence over the strike, which Syria said hit an unused military installation. But foreign media reports, some quoting unidentified US officials, have said the strike hit a nuclear facility linked to North Korea.
Damascus denies it has an undeclared nuclear program, and North Korea has said it was not involved in any Syrian nuclear project.
Last month, American analyst David Albright, president of the Institute for Science and International Security, said commercial satellite images taken before and after the Israeli raid supported suspicions that the target was indeed a reactor and that the site was given a hasty cleanup by the Syrians to remove incriminating evidence.
Albright saw a clue in the fact that the structure was roofed at an early stage in its construction.
"From what we understand, North Korea builds reactors in an old-fashioned way; the roof goes on early." he said at the time.
Other analysts have said the satellite images are too grainy to make any conclusive judgment.
Even told The Associated Press that evidence against the reactor theory could be found in satellite pictures of the Syrian installation taken since 2003, which showed no sign of a plutonium separation facility, an essential component, typically of large size with visible ventilation openings.
"It's very difficult to hide a separation plant," he said. "It's more difficult to hide a separation plant than to hide a nuclear reactor."
"In Yongbyon, the supposed sister facility in North Korea, you can see all those signs that I am pointing out that are missing in the Syrian place," Even added. "You can see the chimneys, you can see the ventilation, you can see the cooling towers, you can see the separation plant. All of that is missing from the building in Syria."
Even believes the Syrian cleanup, in which large quantities of soil were bulldozed over the site, was an attempt to smother lethal radiation from a plutonium processing plant.
"Somebody made a lot of effort to bury deeply whatever remains of this facility," he told The AP. "Not just to hide it but to pile up a large mound of dirt on top of it."
Even said Syrian authorities might have taken similar cleanup action if the site had held chemical or biological weapons, but it would not have made sense for Israel to have taken the military and diplomatic risk of attacking such a facility, long a known part of Syria's arsenal.
"We know already that the Syrians have in place armed missiles with chemical weapons," he said. "They are already well-equipped in that department."
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