JEDDAH, Saudi Arabia -- Whenever Hawazen Ebrahim’s family spends an evening picnicking in the desert outside of Medina, it’s her job to jump into the car and drive to the nearest village to load up on extra supplies. During the week, she is responsible for taking the kids to school and picking them up each day.
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Ebrahim, 25, doesn’t consider herself an outlaw, nor is she protesting Saudi Arabia’s ban on women driving. She does what many Saudi women do in rural villages throughout the kingdom and drives as part of the everyday responsibilities of managing a household.
Saudi Arabia is regularly criticized by human rights groups and the foreign media for its bank on women drivers, when it comes to women driving in rural areas the authorities have what can best be best described as a “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy. Women who keep a low profile can drive. It’s the worst kept secret in the country.
“The women in my family and the families in my neighborhood think
nothing of driving,” said Fawzyyah Hassan, 45, who tools along the roads
in areas near Medina. “My husband goes to work before we even get up in
the morning and comes home late. Of course, I drive.”
Saudi Arabia’s driving ban isn’t strictly speaking illegal since there
is no actual law on the books that prevents women from driving. Sharia –
the Islamic code of law – doesn’t address the issue.
Indeed, Abdullah Alami, a Saudi economist who is spearheading the latest
campaign to end the ban, said the law implies that women are permitted
to drive. Alami is fighting a quixotic campaign get the Shura Council,
the body that advises the king on policy, to consider a petition
allowing women to drive.
“You see, Islam calls for protecting women’s legitimate rights,” Alami
told The Media Line. “Driving is a right for women, as it is for men.
Article 32 of the Saudi Traffic Regulations provides that. It’s
prohibited for any ‘person’ driving a vehicle before getting a driver’s
license. Based on this text, the term ‘person’ isn’t limited to males.”
Women caught driving in cities don’t face arrest. A Saudi journalist
explains that local police agencies follow a basic policy by taking the
offending female driver to the police station and having a mahram (male
guardian) come to collect her. At the station, the police require the
guardian to sign a document promising never to allow his charge to drive
again. Refusing to sign the document exposes the guardian to jail time
for failing to discharge his duties the protector of the woman.
“I have to admit I never heard of any guardian being arrested because his daughter drove a car,” the journalist said.
Although Saudi Arabia keeps no statistics on how many women drive cars,
large numbers routinely get behind the wheel in virtually every rural
community where hundreds of miles separate towns and villages.
While men are at work, wives and mothers transport livestock to market
and drive tanker trucks to ensure their villages have water. Many
Bedouin women act as the principal breadwinners in the family by
transporting goods from village to village. Unlike in urban areas, a
woman driving in the desert isn’t taboo, but encouraged.
“There is evidence that women who drive in remote villages have earned
respect for following traffic regulations,” Alami said. “It’s natural
for women in rural areas to assist in making a living in every way
In 2009, there were so many women driving in the Ha’il region that the
Commission on the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice (the
mutaween) filed a complaint with the administrative authorities asking
that 15 women stripped of all driving privileges. The local authorities
ignored the demand because it posed a threat to the families’
Women in the hinterlands have few alternatives to getting behind the
wheel. The typical family car in rural areas is a pickup truck with a
single bench to seat three people in the cab. But women can’t sit beside
a male driver because it puts them in a state of khalwa (seclusion with
an unrelated man), which is forbidden. Families can’t afford to hire a
profession driver because that would cut into the family income.
In any case, it’s virtually impossible for traffic police and the mutaween to patrol thousands of square miles of desert.
But, the tacit acceptance of women driving doesn’t extend to cities,
where the ban is enforced. Indeed, women passengers sitting alone in
taxis or cars with private drivers face harassment from men. The
harassment has made many families fearful of allowing their daughters or
wives to be alone in a car.
Alami, however, said that is no longer a valid concern. “People are more
convinced today than ever that there is no justification for preventing
women from driving,” he said. “Saudi women continue to drive in various
countries around the world. It has become more acceptable for them to
drive in their own country.”
There is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that police sometimes turn a
blind eye to women driving in the city, at least in Jeddah where a
large swath in the northern part of the city is inhabited mainly by
wealthy Western-educated Saudis. Police officers are often reluctant to
confront influential families that tacitly approve of their daughters
and wives driving.
A 26-year-old woman, who asked that her name not be published, said she
recently went on a driving spree with a female friend in North Jeddah.
“I have a new Hummer. It was late at night and the streets were empty,
so we were driving all over the place,” she recalled. “A policeman
pulled me over. He said, ‘Don’t drive in the city center or to the
south,’ and let me go. He acted like it was the most natural thing in
Alami said rural women could serve as role models to their urban
sisters. They get behind the wheel to put food on the table and don’t
bother themselves with the restrictions their urban counterparts face.
Last month, Alami sent a petition signed by 136 Saudis, including 98
women, to the Shura Council. The petition asks for consideration of a
trial-driving phase. The Shura Council can forward a recommendation to
the Council of Ministers for approval if it agrees the plan has merit.
The petition seeks to specify driving schools available to teach women
driving and to issue driving certificates. It also asks that police
departments develop women’s sections to handle licensing and violations
issues. A key component of the petition asks that stiff jail time and
fines be imposed on people harassing female drivers.
Alami also seeks to have Saudi traffic authorities develop vehicle
safety checks, highway breakdown programs and an awareness campaign.
A representative for the Shura Council said there was no record of the
Council receiving the petition. Alami is undeterred. He is preparing a
second petition and seeking additional signatures.
“Saudi Arabia has signed the international conventions of
non-discrimination against women,” Almani said, referring to the United
Nations’ Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women. “It is crucial that women aren’t discriminated against,
including, and not limited to, driving.”