Shmuley Boteach 58.
(photo credit: d)
Is atheism necessary for religion? Rabbi Zusya would say yes. The great Russian
hassidic rabbi, who lived more than 200 years ago, was one day teaching his
students when he emphasized the necessity of atheism and agnosticism. His
students were aghast. Had the master lost his mind? He proved his point. “Say
you’re walking down the street and see a hungry man or a homeless woman. If
you’re certain there is a God, you’re reaction might be, ‘I need do nothing
because God will provide.’ But if you don’t believe in God, or if you doubt His
existence, then only you can provide.’”
Religion is the most powerful tool known
to mankind. It is capable of inspiring the artistic wonders of the Italian
Renaissance and the reliefs of Michelangelo, and is capable of inspiring 19
young men to fly airplanes into buildings. It can show mankind a vision of a
perfect world in which “the wolf lies down with the lamb” and it can give the
world a vision of people needing to be burned at the stake or stoned as
Without intelligent and earnest critics, the heavenly vision
can easily twist into the hell on earth. Hence the necessity of atheism and
I would argue that religion learns more about itself from
its critics than from its admirers.
I have debated many atheists, from
Richard Dawkins to Daniel Dennett to Sam Harris to Christopher Hitchens. Of them
all, Hitchens has been by far the most formidable opponent, the one I have most
loved and the one that has most gotten under my skin. Religious people have no
real interest in Dawkins, whom they find extreme, clinical, mechanical and
monolithic. But Hitchens is passionate, utterly unpredictable, contrarian and
fluent. And while he has been, at times, highly unfair in his criticism of
religion, he redeems it all by being all too human. It is his most likable
quality. He is also supremely entertaining.
I BELIEVE this is the reason
that my upcoming debate with Hitchens on September 16 in New York City at the
Cooper Union on “Is there an afterlife?” has generated such interest,
particularly among religious people. The news that Hitchens may be terminally
ill has provoked sadness all round, particularly among the
Groups praying for Hitchens’s healing have sprung up all over
Are the faithful praying for Hitchens recovery because they want
him to have enough time to convert? Is it because they want a miracle to open
his eyes to God’s presence? I can’t say. I can only speak for myself.
have no interest in converting Christopher Hitchens to religion. His atheism has
not stopped him from being a champion of human rights , and he can teach
religious people a thing or two about standing up to tyrants. I am not so naïve
as to believe for a moment that Hitchens would be so intellectually dishonest as
to suddenly abandon his antipathy toward religion because of impending death.
Only a coward forsakes his personal truth in the face of death, and one thing
Hitchens is not is a coward. I am not a believer in religion-in-the-foxholes and
deathbed confessions. Religion is too important to be embraced out of
Rather, what I intend with our debate is to finally dismiss this
notion that religious people invented the idea of an afterlife out of a sense of
insecurity. We’ve heard it all before. Religion is the opiate of the masses.
It’s a drug that weak-minded people take to help them deal with the
meaninglessness of life. They invented the afterlife because they couldn’t
accept the finality of death.
Then they invented God to give purpose and
design to a fundamentally chaotic and unjust world.
The afterlife in
Judaism is none of these things. It is not an escape from the flaws of this
world or a reward for the suffering endured here. Any religion that promises an
eternal reward for living righteously is better characterized as a business
promoting celestial remuneration. Worship God so that He’ll pay you in the
Judaism demands that we do the right thing because it’s right
and never for any reward.
Most Jewish sages understand the World to Come
as the world the way it will be when it reaches a state of perfection through
human endeavor – what we call the Messianic Era.
Judaism’s focus is not
on the heavens but on the earth, not on a disembodied existence in the sky but
on souls animating bodies and doing good deeds here on earth. Our ground zero is
not God’s celestial throne but the Earth’s sacred spaces.
I have no
intention of converting Hitchens to my religious point of view, and don’t
believe I could even if I wanted to.
But I can convince Hitchens that his
ideas about religious people are wrong. That we are strong rather than weak,
focused on this life rather than on the next, dedicated to healing the world
rather than gaining entry into the heavens, fundamentally opposed to
fundamentalists, extremely suspicious of any kind of extremists and open to
ideas – and criticism – from every quarter.
That’s what Rabbi Zusya was
trying to demonstrate. Religious people learn how to serve God and humanity
better from everyone they meet.The writer is host of The Shmuley Show on
77 WABC in NYC. He is the international best-selling author of 23 books, and has
Renewal: A Guide to the Values-Filled Life.Follow him on