Ethiopian Jews 370.
(photo credit: Moshe Shai)
A program aired on Israel Educational Television on Sunday revealed that
Ethiopian Jewish women awaiting aliya were given long-lasting birth-control
while in transit camps. According to the report, the clinics were run by the
Joint Distribution Committee and Israel’s Health Ministry.
administered every 12 weeks, is known as Depo-Provera, a hormonal, injectable
contraceptive known as the “birth-control shot.” Although it has existed for
around 30 years, it is not widely used. Only about five percent of women elect
to use this method of birth control in the US.
Yet it appears that it was
chosen as an easy and effective choice for women in Ethiopia about to emigrate.
According to the report, the practice of providing Depo-Provera
disproportionately to Ethiopian women was continued after their arrival in
The central question this raises is to what degree the women were
provided with an informed choice. Also, was the decision to administer this shot
tinged with racism and paternalism? One Ethiopian woman claimed, in an interview
: “We said we won’t have the shot. They told us, if you don’t, you
won’t go to Israel.... We didn’t have a choice.”
The Joint responded, “We
do not advise them to have small families. It is a matter of personal choice....
The claims by the women, according to which refusal to have the injection would
bar them from medical care and economic aid and threaten their chances to
immigrate to Israel, are nonsense. The medical team does not intervene
directly or indirectly in economic aid and the Joint is not involved in aliya
But if those administering the shot were not involved in
immigration, this doesn’t mean that the mostly poor, vulnerable and sometimes
illiterate women were not made to feel that they had little choice in the
Were the women provided, for instance, with the same information
that an Israeli woman would expect to receive from her health-care professional?
Were they told that not only would the shot prevent pregnancy for three months,
but that it is linked to weight gain?
The Journal of Medical Ethics
report addressing this issue in 1984, in which the authors noted, “Depo-Provera
has been damned as an example of Malthusian enthusiasts foisting unsolicited and
questionable therapies on other people hence creating unwarranted risks
especially for the poor and those least able to understand the benefit/ risk
writer Frosty Woolridge reported that in Haiti, aid
groups discussed making Depo-Provera injections free to women because “Haitians
need to bring their fertility down to European rates.”
In 2008, according
to an article in The National
, Rachel Mangoli – who ran a day-care center for
Ethiopian children in Bnei Brak – was told by a family clinic that it had been
told to provide Ethiopian women with the long-term birth control
Feminist organization Woman to Woman reported in 2010 that
57 percent of women receiving Depo-Provera in Israel were Ethiopian, even though
they made up only 2 percent of the population.
Unanswered questions remain and
it is imperative that the organizations involved in the aliya of Ethiopian Jews
– including the North American Conference on Ethiopian Jews, the Joint, the
Health Ministry and the Jewish Agency – provide clear answers.
enough to shirk responsibility and claim that the women are not telling the
truth. What would motivate these women, after having made aliya, to lie? If, as
they say, they felt pressured to take a birth-control shot that they did not
fully understand the ramifications of, and they were then encouraged to keep
taking it in Israel, a system should now be put in place to make sure that women
in their circumstances receive the same information and are presented with the
same choices as immigrants from North America, haredi women or Arab women in
Attempts to limit population growth in places such as China and
the controversial sterilization program carried out by Indira Gandhi in India in
1975 are hallmarks of coercive population control. It is neither the job of the
government nor an NGO to decide on an individual’s future family.
right to make one’s own family-planning decisions is essential in a free
society. All of those involved in Ethiopian aliya must now ensure that this
right remains at the forefront of any administration of birth-control methods.