Advertisers who send unwanted solicitations by telephone, text messages (SMS), e-mail (spam) or fax may be fined as much as NIS 200,000, according to a bill the Knesset approved Wednesday. The new law takes effect in six months. In addition to being a nuisance for private e-mail users, spam has become a heavy burden on Internet suppliers and other companies, whose bandwidth and storage capabilities need to be constantly expanded to deal with the ever-increasing bulk of spam being sent every day - estimated at more than 100 billion e-mails worldwide. The bill also refers to mass solicitation by fax. "By what right can someone attack me with faxes and force me to waste ink and paper on things that have no interest for me?" NU-NRP chairman Benny Elon said in the Knesset debate." The law also deals with the burgeoning phenomenon of bulk SMS text messages and automatic telephone dialers, perpetrated by promotion companies that obtain large lists of telephone numbers and send out thousands of SMS messages, creating an unwanted distraction. Two basic models have been developed worldwide in attempts to contain these phenomena. One model, common in Europe, is called "opt-in," where telephone owners and e-mail owners cannot be contacted unless they have agreed specifically to receive mass solicitations. The US has adopted an "opt-out" system, where people can be called, provided they have not made a request not to be. According to figures presented in the Knesset deliberations, 74 percent to 87% of telephone users have opted out of automated calls. Israel's new legislation employs the stricter "opt-in" approach, with the exception that those who purchase an item and send their details to a company can be sent bulk mail if they have not specifically opted out. Another exception included in the bill allows for bulk mailing for political or charity purposes. Elon said the exception make the legislation piecemeal and arbitrary, no changes were made. The new law, once enacted, will allow private citizens to sue for up to NIS 1,000 without proving any specific damages, or lodge a complaint with the police, who can follow up with a criminal charge leading to much stiffer penalties. Prof. Niv Ahituv, of Tel Aviv University's Netvision Institute for Internet Studies, said junk e-mail can be a nuisance, or even worse. "Part of it is simply advertisement, whether for Viagra, lotteries and gambling, or travel, but some junk e-mail is really a 'sting' operation," he said. "I recently received an e-mail [from] within the university system saying that there was a problem with the university log-in and that everyone was requested to send their name and identification number, as well as their user name and password, to a certain e-mail address," he added. "Well, I know for certain that no legitimate site will ask you for both your user name and your password, so I immediately deleted it. Sure enough, only minutes later an announcement came from the university, asking people to ignore that mail." Ahituv said enforcing anti-spam laws has proven to be difficult, though authorities in various countries have met with some success. "The law can only be applied to Israeli companies, and it is possible to use a foreign server to evade the law," he said. "There is no way of ensuring complete enforcement until an international convention is signed on the matter, and only if every single nation has signed on." Netvision 013 Barak, which supplies both Internet and e-mail services, said the new law should help lower the masses of spam e-mail, which they estimate at about 95% of all e-mails sent. "The new law delineates what is permitted and what is not," the company wrote in a statement to The Jerusalem Post. "Now that there is a clear definition, it will be easier to deal with unwanted advertising, provided the sender is from this country."