Signatory States: United States and (Former) Soviet Union
Entered Into Force 1988
The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (the INF Treaty) was designed to eliminate an entire class of US and Soviet ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500-5500 km.
The Treaty prohibits the production, possession, and flight-testing of intermediate-range ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles, the stages of such missiles, or launchers for such missiles. Key provisions included a three-year timetable to eliminate these missiles, launchers, associated support equipment, support facilities, and training equipment. By June 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union had eliminated all their INF missiles (846 and 1846, respectively).
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the Russian Federation replaced the Soviet Union as a Party to the INF Treaty.
In May 1994, the United States, the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine signed an amendment to the INF Treaty making those countries Parties to the INF Treaty and responsible for its continued implementation.
The INF Treaty contained a comprehensive regime to ensure "verification of compliance" with Treaty provisions. It is comprised of an agreement not to interfere with national technical means (NTM) of verification of the other Party and a comprehensive package of on-site inspections and cooperative measures involving the opening of roofs on shelters for strategic mobile missiles. These inspections and cooperative measures applied for 13 years after the Treaty entered into force.
On 1 June, 2001, all inspections and monitoring under the INF Treaty ceased. However, the Parties remain obligated to observe the prohibition against production, possession, and flight-testing of INF-range ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles, their stages, and their launchers. The Parties are also obligated to notify any changes to INF Treaty Memorandum of Understanding data, including changes to the number and location of launchers for INF-range research and development (R&D) booster systems.