Six months ago the The New York Times
came under a sophisticated cyber attack
that lasted for months. Passwords of numerous Times
employees were stolen and
access was gained to dozens of computers and accounts. The attacks were
eventually traced back to China. The motivation for the attack was apparently a
major story the newspaper broke in October 2012.
The investigative report
had revealed that “many relatives of Wen Jiabao [the prime minister], including
his son, daughter, younger brother and brother-in-law, have become
extraordinarily wealthy during his leadership.” According to the data the family
has amassed more than $2.7 billion. Just one investment, in the name of the
prime minister’s mother, had a value of $120 million.
“As prime minister in an economy that remains heavily state-driven, Mr. Wen...
has broad authority over the major industries where his relatives have made
This could be just an isolated story of a family using
its connections to become wealthy.
But let’s pause a moment and ponder
whether, if China was not emerging from the tight controls of Communism, but was
rather a capitalist free-market economy, would his family have been able to
amass such wealth? The key to the Wen family’s wealth seems to have little to do
with business acumen.
Yang Zhiyun, the mother, didn’t have excellent
business training at top state schools.
Rather, the prime minister has
claimed that his family were poor pig farmers. However, the family hasn’t gotten
wealthy from leveraging a family business and know-how to global
Rather, the origins of the money, as reported, are
industries that were either state controlled or have some state connections. In
a socialist economy this is typical, especially as such an economy liberalizes
and privatizes itself. Large state-owned behemoths need to have boards of
directors appointed by the state, and as those large financial beasts lumber
along, with all their subsidiaries, each requires connections with the state
bureaucracy to secure lucrative contracts. Lack of competition breeds the need
to be connected to the state, rather than to simply be better at doing
It is in this way that socialism breeds nepotism, because
people in the employ of the state appoint their friends and relatives to
positions that the state has influence over.
Most people think of
socialism as a system that champions equality and workers’ rights.
socialist system provides a welfare net, it restricts private industry and
regulates it in order to help the common man and the “masses.” The socialist
system requires high taxes in order to pay for extensive social programs, such
as health care and low tuition.
But what socialism has never quite
provided an answer to is what to do about the notion of equality at the
Consider a simple question: What was the essential difference in the
opportunities provided to the children of the elite in Soviet Russia and the
children of the elite in America under the two very different financial systems?
Answer: There was no essential difference.
Both had a major head start
over their peers; in America due to money and in Soviet Russia due to state
connections. Despite all the talk about equality, socialist and communist
systems never solved the problem of how to create a society that was socially
and economically mobile. For this reason numerous Communist states ultimately
become the personal preserve of a single family; the Castros in Cuba and the
Kims in North Korea, for instance.
Socialist states such as Hugo Chavez’s
Venezuela increasingly become personal fiefdoms.
Chavez’s father was the
governor of Barinas state, and his brother, Adan, was also governor of that
state, while his other brother, Anibal, is mayor of his hometown. Another
brother, Adelis, is a senior banker at Banco Sofitasa, a bank that does business
with the government. Another brother, Narciso, just happened to land jobs at
several diplomatic posts after Chavez became president. Adan Chavez,
coincidentally, was appointed ambassador to Cuba and then education
Chavez’s brother-in-law is the country’s science minister. And
yet this is still called the Bolivarian “revolution,” and is praised by some
leftists in the West as a model of “socialism in practice.” But is it socialism
in practice, or just state nepotism in practice – and is there a difference?
OBVIOUSLY NEPOTISM is not an invention of the Left. The Bush family in the US
can hardly be called socialists and yet the father and two brothers did quite
well in politics. Not unlike the Kennedys, who were also not exactly socialists,
despite what some may say. Certainly many large American fortunes have been in
the hands of several families, such as the Fords, where generation after
generation finds work either at a family trust or with the parent
The difference between capitalistic nepotism and socialist
nepotism is that nepotism in a free market necessitates merit, and absence of
merit leads to financial ruin. Consider a company that becomes a family fiefdom,
where the sons and daughters and brothers-in-law of the owner are all placed in
upper management. While some families produce excellent leaders for successive
generations, eventually the employment of too many family members will result in
the advancement of incompetents into critical positions. At this point the
company will begin to fail against its rivals (excepting those rivals also run
by family dead wood).
Most American business empires do not employ large
numbers of kin at the top; there are no legions of Gateses at Microsoft, or
relatives of Steve Jobs at Apple. The great American investor Warren Buffet
doesn’t have his children on the payroll.
Socialism necessitates the
massive expansion of government, and with it the employment of numerous people.
Because government, by definition, has no competition, there is no good measure
for the failure of government managers. There is therefore no incentive not to
employ people’s family members, colleagues and associates in government work. In
a more socialist economy the size of government and large salaries of government
employees mean that the elites will gravitate toward government work, and bring
their families with them.
In Israel this is a serious problem which often
flies under the radar. Every few months there are allegations that someone
received a plush position due to connections. In one Haaretz article it was
asserted that Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu’s attorney (and distant
relative) had worked as an $18,000-amonth adviser for the Plant Board (a public
board that combines the oh-so-important Fruit Board, Vegetable and Citrus Board
and Flower Board). The media preferred to focus on the political side of this
issue to harm Likud, Netanyahu’s party, but the real question should have been
“what else goes on at the Plant Board?” Who are these doyens of Israeli society
who serve on obscure “boards” where public salaries can be 18 times minimum
wage? For instance it turns out Boaz Toporovsky, now an MK for Yesh Atid, made
NIS 232,000 “for working nine months in a half-time position in 2011” as
chairman of ISSTA, the student union-owned travel agency. Toporovsky was
formerly the chairman of the student union at Tel Aviv University.
is no issue of nepotism here, but where there are high salaries associated with
companies that are in some way connected to the public (i.e. their directors are
appointed by public officials), there is a danger of connections playing a
bigger role than merit.
It is often said that government salaries need to
be higher in order to compete with the private sector. There is some truth in
this, but what happens in socialist economies is that government salaries are
not merely higher, they are astronomical, and the main engine of salary growth
Because government, oddly, has less checks and balances
regarding nepotism at the highest levels (say, political appointments to foreign
embassies), their is ample opportunity for all manner of “consultant” and
“spokesman” positions to be infiltrated by cousins, brothers, brothers-in-law,
sisters, mothers and flotsam and jetsam from the family trailer
Transparency can be one cure. But it alone won’t reveal, for
instance, that the owner of a certain influential company has a son who just
happens to clerk at the Supreme Court, or that the head of an influential NGO
just happens to have a wife who’s the spokesperson of a university. Because
connections can be quite broad; rather than the son of an MK being appointed to
work at the embassy in Canada, for example, the son could just happen to secure
a position on the board of a certain government-supported body that helps with
Break the salaries of government employees and promote a true free
market and the nepotism and proteksia
will wither on the vine. When the economic
engines of the nation burn with competition, the dead wood is consumed in the
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