“Take the staff... and speak to the rock...”– Numbers 20:8
One of the
most important aspects of Jewish life which characterizes our generation is the
empowerment of women, in political, social and even religious spheres. Many
years ago, in a lengthy private meeting (yehidut) with the revered Lubavitcher
Rebbe, he told me that the greatest challenge facing Orthodox Jewry was the
position of women in society – and our halachic response to what was then a
newly-found acceptance of female “equality” within Western culture.
question remains whether women’s greater involvement in Torah learning and
teaching will produce a different dimension, or at least a different emphasis,
to the quality of Torah which is emerging. I believe the answer to this query
may be found in this week’s portion of Hukat.
I would like to begin this
commentary with a different but connected issue in our portion: the sin and
punishment of Moses. The children of Israel arrive at the wilderness of Zin,
settle in Kadesh, Miriam dies and the people complain bitterly over the lack of
water (Numbers 20:1, 2). Rashi immediately notes the connection: so long as
Miriam was alive, a special well accompanied the Israelites on their journey.
With her death, the well – and its water – were sorely missed. God instructs
Moses to “take the staff... and speak to the rock.”
The staff could
symbolize Moses’s brand of leadership, it may even have been the staff he used
earlier to smite the Egyptian taskmaster. The rock may symbolize the Jewish
people, a stiff-necked nation, hard and stubborn as a rock, quick to kvetch
ripe for rebellion (so explains Rabbenu Tzadok in his Pri Tzadik
Moses, however, strikes the rock, as God had bidden him to
do in similar circumstances a year before (Exodus 17:1-7). In this instance,
however, he is excluded from entering the Land of Israel because he strikes the
rock rather than speaking to it (Numbers 20:7-13). Why the distinction, and why
such a harsh punishment? The use of a rod, or a scepter, implies regal
authority, domination and control. By the time of the Exodus from Egypt, the
Israelites had suffered 210 years of subjugation at the hands of Pharaoh, a
What they required was a benevolent and ethical but
After so many years of slavery, a lack of leadership would
send them into the kind of panic which had pushed them into the orgies of the
golden calf. Hence, just following the splitting of the Red Sea, God instructs
Moses to use his leadership staff and strike the rock.
after a full year of freedom, God would have expected Moses to have rejected the
power of the staff to gain the obedience of the Israelites and to have utilized
instead the persuasiveness of the word to win their fealty and faithfulness.
Hence God instructs Moses to speak to the rock – the stubborn Israelites –
rather than to strike it.
Moreover, Moses has by now received the second
Tablets, which included the Oral Law (Exodus 34), the hermeneutic principles
which empowered the people to become God’s partners in interpreting His words in
every generation. Speech invites dialogue. God wants Moses to realize that as
the Israelites matured, they required a different brand of leadership. Instead
of the scepter of authority and control, they required the speech of the Oral
Law. Then, the Torah, which is always compared to water, will come forth from
them, from that very stubborn “rock” of a nation.
After all, it’s that
same stubbornness which energizes commitment, enduring commitment, even unto
death, the commitment of the Israelites to the Torah in which they have become
invested by means of the Oral Law.
This incident of Moses’s sin and
punishment is sandwiched between Miriam’s death and an account of a well this
Yonatan Ben-Uziel identifies as the return of the well of Miriam: “And from
there [the Israelites traveled] to the well; this is the well regarding which
the Lord said to Moses, ‘Gather the nation and I shall give them water.’ Then
all of Israel sang this song; concerning the well, they sang to it” (Numbers
I believe the Bible is here presenting an alternative to
Moses’s brand of “scepter” or “striking” leadership; it is Miriam’s brand of
“singing” leadership. Words enter the mind of the other and hopefully lead to
dialogue and debates; songs enter the heart and soul, leading to spirited and
The Torah, the Oral Law which includes input from
Israel, is referred to as a book, but also as a “song” (Deuteronomy 31:19). A
book educates the mind; a song inspires the heart. A book speaks to individuals;
a song moves the masses.
We met Miriam before at the splitting of the Red
After Moses sang his song to God and the Israelites repeated his
words (Exodus 15:1), Miriam took a drum and inspired the other women to also
take drums and initiate dancing (ibid 20). Moreover, Miriam rouses them all to
As the Lubavitcher Rebbe explains the prophetic verse,
“Then [in the Messianic Age] there shall be heard... the sound of the groom and
the sound of the bride.” The sound of the bride (the woman) shall be the sound
of Torah, but it will be different from the men’s Torah; it will be a Torah of
song, a Torah of heart, and a Torah which includes everyone.The writer
is the founder and chancellor of Ohr Torah Stone Colleges and Graduate Programs,
and chief rabbi of Efrat.