AMSTERDAM -- A few streets over from the bookstore where Anne Frank bought her famous diary, the only kosher butcher shop in Holland is bustling. Two employees man the long counter at Slagerij Marcus, pausing from chopping meat to sell customers a bit of this or that for Shabbat dinner.
In the wake of an overwhelming vote by the Dutch House of Representatives
to ban the type of ritual slaughter required for kosher and halal meat, this butcher shop famous for its handmade sausage is at the front lines of a battle between two competing ideals in Holland: freedom of religion and animal welfare.RELATED:Editorial: Uniting against the shechita banEJC may sue to stop Dutch anti-ritual slaughter bill
What put shechita, or kosher slaughter, in the crosshairs was an unlikely convergence between animal rights activists and Holland’s far-right, anti-Muslim movement.
The Party for the Animals is interested in banning all forms of what it
considers inhumane slaughter, while the Freedom Party led by firebrand
Geert Wilders is interested in making Holland inhospitable to Muslims.
For Wilders, who in 2009 called Islam “the ideology of a retarded
culture,” the impact on shechita is collateral damage.
“It’s a shift from the Netherlands as an open society to the Netherlands
as a closed, monocultural society,” said Joel Erwteman, a Jewish lawyer
who helped Dutch Jewish leaders draft a position paper opposing the
slaughter bill. “It’s becoming completely normal to talk about Muslims
as being a problem.”
Kosher slaughter seems secure for now -- the Parliament is on recess
until September, and approval by the Dutch Senate, a key step for the
measure to become law, is no guarantee.
If the ban does pass, Jewish leaders plan to challenge it in court,
arguing that the guarantee of freedom of religion enshrined in the
European Convention on Human Rights precludes banning shechita. The law
also could be amended to make an exception for kosher slaughter if it
can be proven that no additional harm is caused to animals by killing
them the kosher way.
And if that fails, Dutch Jews easily could procure kosher meat by importing it legally from nearby countries.
But for many Jews in the country, the most disconcerting element of the
drive to outlaw shechita isn’t so much the legality of kosher slaughter
per se but the symbolism of Holland’s move to outlaw a basic element of
Jewish life. It’s a sign, some say, that after 400 years of a Jewish
presence in the Netherlands, the traditions of the country’s
approximately 40,000 Jews count for little.
“Do I want to be in a society that acts like this?” Erwteman said. “I
don’t think many of us are feeling very welcome right now.”
Rabbi Binyomin Jacobs, president of the Dutch union of rabbis and chief
rabbi of the country’s Inter-Provincial Chief Rabbinate, said the
proposed law reflects the growing feeling in Dutch society that religion
is something to be feared, or at least kept at arms’ length.
“They put it on the level of fairy tales,” he said of religion, while
elevating animal rights to an article of faith. “They can be so fanatic
that they care more about the animals than they do about the feelings of
Jacobs, who says that some 500 Dutch Jewish families keep kosher,
worries that the shechita ban is the first step on the road to an
eventual prohibition against circumcision. He noted that the prospect of
a ban is especially disturbing for Holocaust survivors because the
Nazis imposed a ban on shechita as one of their first acts after
invading the Netherlands in 1940.
Esther Voet, editor of a Dutch Jewish newsweekly called Nieuw
Israelietisch Weekblad, said playing the Holocaust card to criticize the
legislation has not endeared the Dutch Jewish community to lawmakers in
The Hague, the more conservative city about 45 minutes south of
Amsterdam that is the seat of Dutch government.
“We damaged ourselves with that,” she said. “That’s an emotional response. You should lead this discussion from reason.”
Voet said opposition to the bill would have been stronger had the
community’s liberal and Orthodox factions unified more quickly in
Still, the Jewish community did bring out the big guns to stop the legislation.
Britain’s chief rabbi, Sir Jonathan Sacks, addressed the Dutch
Parliament on June 16, and Cornell University food science professor Joe
Regenstein wrote a report rebuking the opposition’s claims that kosher
slaughter causes undue suffering to animals.
The Anti-Defamation League, American Jewish Committee, Simon Wiesenthal
Center, World Jewish Congress, B’nai B’rith International and the Kosher
Certification Service jointly sent a letter to Dutch Prime Minister
Mark Rutte saying that the bill would “cause unacceptable harm to the
religious freedom of the Dutch Jewish community.”
Among the 30 parliamentarians who voted against the bill were several
non-Jewish members of religious political parties. One of them, Esme
Wiegman of the Christian Union Party, visited the kosher slaughterhouse
to see for herself how the animals are killed.
Wiegman told JTA that Dutch politicians who are not religious have a
difficult time grasping the centrality of religious rituals to the lives
of the devout. She said the move to outlaw shechita was a matter of
religious freedom for all, not just for Jews.
“It isn’t a problem of a few people,” she said. “It’s a question for all of us.”
There are several kosher stores in the leafy Amsterdam neighborhood of
Buitenveldert, near the city’s world trade center and cluster of
Daniel Bar-on, the 22-year-old who owns the kosher meat restaurant H’
Bar-on, said he is prepared to do whatever is necessary to continue
providing his customers with a diverse set of kosher options. The ritual
slaughter bill, he said, caught him by surprise.
“We’ve been doing it for so many years, and no one’s ever had a problem
with it, and suddenly all Holland wants to get rid of it,” he said. “I
never thought it would ever get this far.”
The initiative against shechita was the brainchild of the fledgling
Party for the Animals, which holds just two seats in the 150-seat Dutch
House and one in the 75-seat Senate. The far-left party argues that
stunning an animal is more humane than the razor-sharp knife used in
kosher slaughter. A representative told JTA that the party’s leader,
Marianne Thieme, was unavailable for comment due to the legislative
The animal rights party framed the debate as a stark choice between the
mutually exclusive goals of religious freedom and animal welfare,
“Do you think that an animal should suffer more because of the religion
of the person who killed it? That’s the way they phrased it,” he said.
“I think most of the parties felt compelled to answer that question with
About 500 million animals are slaughtered in the Netherlands each year.
Of that number, about 3,000 are slaughtered according to the laws of
kashrut and about 1 million are slaughtered according to the laws of
halal. Both styles of slaughter would be banned under the proposed law.
Holland is not the first European country to consider banning shechita.
Sweden, Norway, Luxembourg and Switzerland already ban kosher slaughter,
though they all allow the import of kosher meat.
The question now is whether Holland will join that club.
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