Yom Kippur Malkot ritual 521.
(photo credit:REUTERS/Ronen Zvulun)
One of the misconceptions concerning Yom Kippur is that the most important
prayer of the day is Kol Nidre.
In the first place, Kol Nidre is not a
prayer at all. It is a quasi-legal formula for nullifying vows. The only prayer
in it is the conclusion, which was added in the 13th century, in which we ask to
be forgiven for our sins and are assured that God will indeed forgive the people
Historically speaking, Kol Nidre was a popular formula that
sprang from the demands of the people in Babylonia sometime before the eighth
century and that was actually opposed by rabbinic authorities such as Amram
Gaon, who found it foolish and quite meaningless. Yet, obviously, people did not
listen to the rabbis and attributed to it the importance that it has
There are two possible explanations for this. One is the melody,
which is so haunting and moving that one can ignore the words and be uplifted
just by the sound. The other is that psychologically, the release from vows
frees people from guilt over those promises we have not fulfilled or those
things we know we should not have done. By abolishing unfulfilled obligations
there is a lifting of a burden that, whether or not we acknowledge it, we carry
with us constantly. We enter Yom Kippur released from our
In this case, the wisdom of the people was more profound
than the pedantry of the wise.
Nevertheless, Kol Nidre is not the most
important prayer of Yom Kippur evening or of the day that follows. The most
important one is the Vidui – the confession of our sins. This is the essential
prayer without which Yom Kippur has no meaning and no efficacy. We recite this
confession in two forms: the short, alphabetical “Ashamnu” followed by the
lengthy, more detailed “Al Het.” The essence of both of these is found in one
word: “hatati” – “I have sinned.”
Originally it was considered sufficient
for one to have simply said that word sincerely before the beginning of Yom
Kippur in order to enter the sacred day in a state of purity and forgiveness.
Tradition has a way of adding to any practice to make certain that it is done
properly and taken seriously. The confession has become much more complex and is
recited not only before Yom Kippur at minha, but also at each of the day’s
services. The principle remains the same: the sincere admission of
It is worth looking into the meaning of the Hebrew word “hatati.”
We translate “het” in English as “sin,” but somehow the connotation is
different. The word “sin” carries a great deal of weight in English. It implies
a measure of wickedness and of intentional wrongdoing. That meaning is sometimes
found in the Hebrew as well. God warns Cain that if he does not do right, “sin
(hatat) crouches at the door” – but He also tells him that “you can be its
Of Sodom and Gomorrah the Lord says, “their sin is very grave.”
But note that by adding the words “is very grave,” it is implied that there are
some sins that are not very grave.
The original literal meaning of the
verb “hata” is “to miss the mark,” as in archery. This connotation carries over
into the spiritual meaning as well.
Sometimes we miss the mark. This can
happen because we tried but erred, or it can happen because we deliberately
decide not to do what should be done. To sin, therefore, is human. It is part
and parcel of our lives. In order to change, it is necessary to admit our
errors. This is what we do when we recite the Vidui. It is the most important of
our Yom Kippur prayers; a necessary prelude to true repentance.
writer, former president of the International Rabbinical Assembly, is a two-time
winner of the National Book Award. His latest book is The Torah Revolution