pope XII 88.
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The Myth of Hitler's Pope
By Rabbi David G. Dalin
History can be fickle. Until 1963, Pope Pius XII was regarded as a defender, even a champion, of the Jews during the fascist period. Then, in 1963, Rolf Hochhuth, a German playwright, wrote Der Stellvertreter (The Deputy) - a play attacking Pius for his alleged "silence" while the Holocaust was taking place. Other writers followed suit, not least John Cornwell, to whose much-publicized book, Hitler's Pope, (reviewed February 25, 2000 by The Jerusalem Post), the title of this volume alludes.
The author of this book, an ordained rabbi, is a professor of history and political science at Ave Maria University, Florida. His book, which is robust, polemical and argumentative, deploys much documentation to show that the portrayal of the pope as a Nazi sympathizer and anti-Semite is at best grotesque, at worst deliberately false. Given the wealth of evidence he assembles, it seems strange that such a notion should ever have been taken seriously. Rabbi Dalin argues persuasively that it has been used by Western liberals to further their own hidden agenda: an attack on Judaeo-Christian civilization itself, and in particular on the bastion of this civilization, the Catholic Church.
Professor Eamon Duffy, a medieval church historian at Cambridge, has referred to the "repellently illiberal" stance of "angry liberals." In their attacks on the reputation of Pius XII, the ugliness and illiberal nature of this stance is revealed in all its twisted rhetoric. For example, the notorious jacket cover for Cornwell's book seems to show Pius XII sweeping out of Hitler's chancellery and being saluted by Nazi guards; in fact, the photo was taken in 1927, during the Weimar Republic, when the pope was papal nuncio, the pope's diplomatic representative; it was deliberately selected by Cornwell for its malign subliminal message, and the caption gives the wrong date of 1939.
DALIN BEGINS by giving a historical survey of the papacy's attitude toward Jews. He argues that, compared with the often-lamentable record of other Christians, the popes throughout the ages appear to have been philo-Semites. Beginning with Gregory the Great in the seventh century, successive popes promoted enlightened attitudes toward Jews, so that Cecil Roth, the Jewish historian, was to write: "Only Romeâ€¦ is free from having been a place of Jewish tragedy."
Indeed, Alexander Borgia, better known for his moral laxity, created the first chair of Hebrew at the University of Rome, and during his tenure the Jewish population of Rome almost doubled. It was also the popes who consistently defended Jews from the scurrilous accusations of ritual murder. In more modern times, Pope Pius X observed: "As far as charity is concerned, the best Christians are the Jews."
In 1916 Pope Benedict XV published a condemnation of anti-Semitism which was drafted by Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli, later to become Pius XII. Pius XI, who succeeded Benedict, studied Hebrew with a local rabbi. It was he who made the famous remark: "Spiritually we are all Semites." John XXIII (1958-63) blessed Jews leaving a Rome synagogue; John Paul II visited Rome's chief synagogue - the first pope ever to do so - and made a moving pilgrimage to the Western Wall in Jerusalem in 2000. On his first foreign visit as pope, in August, Benedict XVI visited a synagogue in Cologne. On inauguration he greeted his "brothers and sisters of the Jewish people."
THESE, THEN, are the gestures and attitudes of Pius XII's papal forbears and successors. What of the life and pontificate of this deeply controversial figure? He, too, studied Hebrew and had many Jewish friends, notably conductor Bruno Walter, whom he met in 1917 when he was papal nuncio to Bavaria. Of 44 speeches he made as papal nuncio between 1917 and 1929, 40 denounced some aspect of the emerging Nazi ideology.
Indeed, the Nazis viewed Pacelli as a "Jew-loving" cardinal. Heydrich, the Nazi SS commander, wrote that "in the long run the pope in Rome is a greater enemy of National Socialism than Churchill or Roosevelt." There is evidence of a Nazi plot to kidnap the pontiff - only frustrated by Wolff, the German commander in Rome.
When Pacelli was elected pope in 1939, Dalin cites a huge amount of evidence for his implacable opposition to Hitler, National Socialism and the anti-Semitic attitude of the Nazi party. The Nazis, the Pope said, were "diabolical," and of Hitler he commented: "This man is capable of trampling on corpses."
When Mussolini's fascist laws forbade Jews to teach in Italian schools or universities, Pius XII promptly appointed several Jewish scholars to posts in the Vatican library. The Times of London commented on the pope on October 1, 1942: "He condemnsâ€¦ the persecution of the Jewish race" and the New York Times described the pope's Christmas address of 1941 as "a lonely voice in the silence and darkness enveloping Europe."
Notwithstanding this, the overwhelming historical record of the pope's concern for the Jews comes from Jews themselves. It is perverse how those who perpetuate the myth ignore the overwhelming documentation in Pius XII's favor by the very people he is supposed to have despised.
RABBI DALIN attempts to set the record straight. His best-known source is Three Popes and the Jews by the Jewish diplomat and historian Pinchas Lapide, which was published in 1967. Weighing all the evidence at his disposal, Lapide calculated that "Pius saved at least 700,000 but possibly 860,000 Jews from death" - more than all the other relief agencies put together. This enormous effort was achieved largely through the church's own religious houses in Italy, and through the papal nunciatures in other European countries such as Hungary and Bulgaria.
Both Archbishop Roncalli (later to become Pope John XXIII) and Archbishop Montini (later to become Pope Paul VI) were charged by Pius to do what they could to save Jewish lives. Theologian Henri de Lubac SJ was similarly directed, as were countless other priests and senior members of the church's hierarchy. Convents, monasteries and presbyteries all over Europe opened their doors to Jewish fugitives; more than 1,000 found asylum at the papal summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, and hundreds were hidden in the Vatican itself. It is estimated that more than 80 percent of Rome's Jews were saved by the intervention of the pope.
Albert Einstein paid tribute to Pius XII as early as 1940, saying that in Germany, "only the Catholic Church stood squarely across the path of Hitler's campaign for suppressing the truth." When Pius died in 1958 he was deeply mourned by the Jews. Golda Meir, then Israel's foreign minister, wrote to the Vatican: "When fearful martyrdom came to our people in the decade of Nazi terror, the voice of the pope was raised for the victims."
One telling detail is omitted from this well-researched book: after the war the chief rabbi of Rome, Israel Zolli, converted to Catholicism; in a personal tribute to Pius he took "Eugenio" as his baptismal name.
So how could the slur of Pius's "silence" ever gain the slightest credibility? Although the pope was not silent in his actions, in his directives to church personnel and in his communications with Allied diplomats, he deliberately refrained from making public statements attacking Hitler during the war. Was this silence culpable? His reason, heavily influenced by Jewish and diplomatic advice, was that not only would a public protest not help the Jews, but it would actually increase their persecution.
The former chief rabbi of Denmark, Marcus Melchior, a Holocaust survivor, argued that "it is an error to think Pius XII could have had any influence whatsoever. If the pope had spoken out, Hitler would have massacred more than six million Jews." When Holland's bishops did courageously protest the rounding up of Dutch Jews, the Nazis instantly retaliated with even harsher measures. To have excommunicated Hitler - a former Catholic - would, as historical examples demonstrate, have had a similar effect.
Such an imposed silence must have caused Pius great inner agony.
His critics have further attacked the Holy See's 1933 concordat with Nazi Germany, not accepting, as the author indicates, that is was "a morally defensible diplomatic measure to protect German Catholicsâ€¦ against a dangerous regime." It was in no way an endorsement of National Socialism.
During negotiations preceding the concordat, Hitler arrested 92 priests and closed nine Catholic publications. As the British ambassador to the Vatican, Ivone Kirkpatrick, commented: "A pistolâ€¦ had been pointed to his [Cardinal Pacelli's] head." Reporting to the Foreign Office on August 19, 1933, Kirkpatrick reported that the Cardinal "deplored the action of the German government at home, their persecution of the Jewsâ€¦"
Dalin has done an excellent job in defending the wartime record of Pius XII. But perhaps the most interesting and significant section of his book is the evidence he produces for a quite different and sinister scenario: the close relationship between Hajj Amin al-Husseini (grand mufti of Jerusalem from 1922) and Hitler's Nazi party. He suggests that Pius's critics have deliberately deflected blame from such pro-Nazi Islamic fundamentalists onto Pius XII. Certainly this thread of the argument was news to me and, I suspect, to many others, but Dalin produces disturbing evidence to support his case.
Hajj Amin al-Husseini was known to have met Hitler privately on a number of occasions. He was a friend of Adolf Eichmann and visited Auschwitz. An implacable enemy of the Jews, he supported the destruction of European Jewry and did all he could to prevent the establishment of a Jewish state. He made frequent broadcasts on German radio, displaying virulent anti-Semitism with statements such as "the Jews live as parasites among the nations, suck out their blood, embezzle their propertyâ€¦"
Most telling of all, in Egypt in 1946 Hajj Amin al-Husseini met the young Yasser Arafat, who became his prot g and went on to lead PLO terrorists for 40 years.
The movement for Pius XII's canonization is under way, though it has been held up by unsubstantiated and malicious accusations concerning his wartime record. According to Rabbi Dalin, the pope should be honored as a righteous gentile - the term given to Christians who risked their own lives to save Jews from the Holocaust.
Because of the author's scholarly research, it is to be hoped that history in the long term will be kinder to the reputation of a man maligned.
The writer lives in Bucks in the UK. Her reviews often appear in British Catholic publications.