(photo credit: Ben Hartman)
The Histadrut Labor Federation is threatening to strike over the working
conditions of workers who are not even Histadrut members. What is this labor
dispute about? The Histadrut is threatening to strike over the status of a
unique Israeli cadre of workers known as “contract workers.”
workers who are formally employed by one employer, the contractor, but in
practice do their work in the workplace of the actual employer who needs the
Contract workers exist – to some extent in every economy – to
fulfill a substantive economic need. The two main kinds are temporary workers
If I am hiring a worker for an extended period, I would
prefer in general that he or she be accountable to me. But if I need someone to
do a standard task for a few weeks or months to fill a temporary absence, to
fill in while I find a suitable worker, or to relieve some special seasonable
pressure, it might make sense for me to turn to an agency specializing in temp
workers of this nature. The temp workers has much more job stability than
someone who looks for such occasional opportunities on his own, and the worker
is more accountable than a truly temporary worker since the temp agency can fire
Likewise, if I am hiring a worker for a specialized task that I
don’t know much about, it might make sense for me to outsource the work. I may
know everything about widgets but very little about cleaning or security, so I
may prefer to leave these tasks to a specialized firm.
But Israel also
has a very large number of a third kind of contract workers: workers who I want
to keep on working directly for me for an extended period, but who I don’t want
to pay as much as other workers who have special statutory rights or collective
The Histadrut would like to give these workers many of
the privileges they currently lack. The reason is obvious: These workers are a
lower-cost substitute for union members.
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Unions everywhere are zealous
for the rights of anyone who gets paid less than them; they are invariably in
favor of anti-sweatshop legislation, minimum wages and any other measures that
make it more expensive to hire nonunion workers.
I see the widespread
presence of such workers in Israel as an expression of a deep-seated ambivalence
in Israeli public life, together with a unique Israeli acceptance of improvised
solutions to circumvent rules. In Northern Europe, unions are very powerful, so
there is no public support for legal subterfuges that circumvent labor laws. In
the United States, unions are very weak, so there is no need for such
In Israel, the labor movement has been powerful enough to
pass legislation providing for extensive rights for workers, but it has not been
powerful enough to ensure that these laws actually apply throughout the Israeli
labor market. Israel has a comparatively generous minimum wage, but studies
consistently show it is poorly enforced. Israeli workers have many rights, but
in recent years it has been easy to hire foreign workers.
employees have many rights that contract workers lack, and so this sector has
become quite large. The contract workers are a jury-rigged solution that suits
the Israeli temperament.
Is the competition from contract workers a
legitimate concern for Israel’s labor unions? Of course it is. Is it a
legitimate grievance for a labor dispute and a threatened strike? In my opinion
it is not.
The Histadrut has a grievance when it can claim that the
workers it represents are not getting the conditions they are entitled to. If
they want to change the face of Israel’s labor market, they should promote their
views through the political process, promoting laws that would close the
“contract worker” loophole.
On the political level, is such legislation
healthy for Israel’s labor market? There is no question that contract work is an
awkward work-around that is bad for everybody. The worker and the employer would
both be better off eliminating the middleman and his monetary and bureaucratic
cut. Often the cure is worse than the disease; requiring the employer to hire
the worker directly if he works for more than a certain number of months will
just result in having a perfectly good worker fired from his job.
solutions are to eliminate the loophole (as the Histadrut would like to do) or
to eliminate the red tape that makes it attractive.
I think giving
workers more rights is currently harmful for Israel’s economy. Making it
expensive to hire workers and expensive to fire them makes starting a business
more cumbersome and expensive, and that discourages
That is one reason the Histadrut has found an unlikely
ally in many of its battles in the Manufacturers Association of Israel, which
represents the established companies.
Just as the unions would like to
avoid competition from nonunion workers, so would the established manufacturers
like to avoid competition from new, low-cost firms. The result is that
competitiveness is harmed, and this may be one reason for the high degree of
concentration in the Israeli marketplace.
If Israel does extend
labor-market protections, many workers would gain from improved working
conditions. But everyone would suffer from higher taxes, higher prices and less
Asher Meir is research director at the
Business Ethics Center of Jerusalem, an independent institute in the Jerusalem
College of Technology (Machon Lev).
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