Strawberry leaves' substance helps protect crop

New Worlds: New biocontrol method for protecting plants from pathogens uses yeast isolated from strawberry leaves.

By
October 21, 2012 04:23
2 minute read.
Strawberries

Strawberries 311. (photo credit: Israel21C)

 
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A novel, environmentally friendly agent that naturally controls fungus and bacteria in agriculture has been developed by the Yissum Research and Development Company at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The new biocontrol method for protecting plants from pathogens uses yeast isolated from strawberry leaves, is non-toxic and effective for a large variety of plants.

Agriculture depends heavily on the use of pesticides to increase crop yield. But the widespread use of chemical pesticides has resulted in severe environmental pollution, and many pathogens are developing resistance to the chemicals. In addition, many pesticides are now banned for use, and organic farming may not rely on such substances at all. A major goal, therefore, is to develop new, environmentally- friendly tools to control pathogens.

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Now, Yissum’s new biocontrol agent, based on naturally-occurring fungi, not only boosts the plant’s resistance to infestations but also enhances growth. The HU company is now looking for an appropriate partner for the further development and commercialization of the product.

The agent was developed by Dr. Maggie Levy from the university’s department of plant pathology and microbiology in the faculty of agriculture, food and environment.

It is based on a species of the epiphytic yeast called Pseudozyma, which derives moisture and nutrients from the air and rain. It usually grows on another plant but is not parasitic.

Levy and her team showed that the yeast secretes substances that inhibit several fungal and bacterial pathogens. Application of the yeast spores significantly diminished the growth of different fungal causal agents of plant diseases such as powdery mildews, the gray mold that has more than 400 different hosts, crown rust, the black spot disease of cultivated Brassicas and late wilt disease in corn. Pathogenic bacteria such as Clavibacter michiganensis , the causative agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were also inhibited by the yeast.

Levy’s novel biocontrol agent is easy to produce, nontoxic and effective at low concentrations and will reduce the amount of chemicals required for pathogen control.

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This, in turn, would genuinely benefit farmers, consumers and the environment.

BELLE BELMONTE

The Jerusalem Education Authority has opened a new science field in which students can matriculate – nanochemistry.

Together with the Belmonte Center of Science Labs on the Hebrew University’s Givat Ram campus, the authority has opened the new field for high school pupils ready to pursue nanochemistry at a level of five units.

Eleventh-grade pupils from around the city who have registered for the new field of study will go to Belmonte for 90 hours of lab work and listen to lectures by leading university chemists who are experts in nanotechnology. Mayor Nir Barkat said that Jerusalem “again proves that it leads in educational innovation. We are working hard all the time on new educational programs to promote the advance of Jerusalem pupils, who are the future of the city.” Other Jerusalem institutions that will cooperate with the program include the Israel Museum and the Hadassah University Medical Centers.

Nanochemistry, a new field in chemistry, involves the ability to produce new materials and systems with innovative characteristics and for new uses by working at the atomic, molecular and super-molecular level. These affect the fields of electronics, magnetism, medicine, alternative energy and others. Developments in nanochemistry can lead to the building of small computer components that are speedier, more energetic and more efficient compared to today’s memory devices.

The Belmonte labs are already involved in the municipal educational system’s teaching of astrophysics, space studies for physics pupils, biotechnology and robotics.

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