PICTURE FROM THE PARASHA.
(photo credit: Israel Weiss (firstname.lastname@example.org) http://artfram)
It is fascinating that our Bible commands that one perform the laws and statutes
of the Lord, and then adds “and he shall live by them.” Would any moral
individual think to perform laws that could cause them to die? Our Sages use
this seemingly superfluous phrase to teach a most important lesson, one which
distinguishes Judaism from some other religions: “You shall live by these My
laws and not die by them. If someone says to you desecrate the Sabbath or I’ll
kill you, you must desecrate the Sabbath; desecrate one Sabbath so that you will
live to observe many more Sabbaths” (BT, Yoma 85b).
Judaism is here
expressing a very special truth: Our religion revels in life. To be sure, there
are instances when one must be ready to die for one’s faith, but this is limited
to three most egregious crimes: murder, sexual immorality and idolatry. If one
says to a Jew “kill X or I’ll kill you; rape Y or I’ll kill you,” the Jew must
give up his or her life rather than commit these crimes. Similarly, in times of
gentile persecution, Jews must demonstrate that they will not give in to gentile
pressure – even pressure unto death – to relinquish their faith. But under
ordinary conditions, no Jewish law overrides the preservation of human
Even the famous test of Abraham, the apparent Divine command that
Abraham sacrifice his son to Him, Kierkegaard notwithstanding, concludes with
Abraham being forbidden to harm his son. The most classic commentary, Rashi,
even goes so far as to say that Abraham misunderstood the Divine command, that
God never meant that he should slaughter his son, but rather dedicate him in
life and not in death.
Unlike the Christian symbol of the cross, which
eternalized the martyrdom of the founder of Christianity, and far from the glory
some militant Islamic groups ascribe to the shahidim, the martyrs, who are urged
(and handsomely paid) to blow themselves up together with innocent Israelis amid
the promise of eternal bliss with 72 virgins, Judaism has never courted
Indeed, our priests-kohanim aren’t even allowed to come into
contact with a dead body, so consistent are we in promoting Judaism as a
life-fostering and this-world oriented religion.
What still remains
strange and difficult to understand is that immediately following the biblical
mandate to “live by God’s laws,” in our weekly portion of Aharei Mot comes a
long list of prohibited sexual relationships which fall under the rubric of “one
must die rather than transgress.” If living by God’s laws is so important, why
follow that stricture with laws for which one must be willing to die rather than
transgress? I believe the answer is to be found in a difficult conundrum
suggested by the Elders of the Negev. The Talmud (BT, Tamid 32b) records a
mind-blowing discussion between Alexander the Great and the Elders of the Negev:
Asked Alexander: What ought a person do if they wish to keep on living? Answered
the Elders: They must slay themselves.
Asked Alexander: What ought
someone do if they wish to die? Answered the Elders: They should try to stay
alive! Permit me to explain the responses of the Elders of the Negev. Let us
answer the second question first. If an individual lives life only in order to
keep on living, he is bound to fail, and he will die in the end; after all, I am
not aware of any individual from the earliest times of history who got out of
this world alive! Hence if a person wishes to die, let him continue to try to
stay alive forever. He will surely die because he will surely fail.
what ought someone do if he wants to keep on living? Let him slay himself, or at
least let him find an idea to live for which is more significant than his own
life. Then even if he dies in pursuit of that ideal, his life shall have gained
ultimate meaning, and he himself will be linked to eternity.
Luther King Jr. put it very well in his speech in Detroit in June 1963: “And I
submit to you that if a man hasn’t discovered something that he will die for, he
ain’t fit to live.”
The only life that is truly meaningful is a life
dedicated to an idea which is greater than one individual’s life.
our portion praised the value of life, “You shall live by My laws,” within the
context of a group of laws for which one must be willing to give up his
The writer is the founder and chancellor of Ohr
Torah Stone colleges and graduate programs and chief rabbi of Efrat.