The mine in Santander de Quilichao in southwestern Cauca province collapsed just before midnight on Wednesday when workers were at the site. Three bodies were recovered shortly after but excavators have been digging for days to reach others buried deeper.
"The search continues with dogs and the rescue personnel to find the site where could be more victims," said Captain Victor Claros, commander of the Santander de Quilichao's fire and rescue brigade.
The Mines and Energy Ministry confirmed the recovery of 10 bodies in a statement.
A large proportion of Colombia's gold output comes from illegal mines, many under the control of leftist guerrillas who have been fighting the government for five decades. Precarious conditions at the mines lead to frequent accidents.
The ministry said there had been 30 fatalities linked to illegal mining activity this year.