US State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert said on Thursday that Iran's test violated a U.N. resolution which endorsed the 2015 deal and calls upon Tehran not to conduct activities related to ballistic missiles designed to be capable of delivering nuclear weapons.
Iran's foreign minister, Mohammad Javad Zarif, on Friday denied Tehran had missiles designed to carry nuclear warheads.
"Iran is not, and will not be, developing nuclear weapons; so by definition cannot develop anything DESIGNED to be capable of delivering them," Zarif said on Twitter.
"Iran - unlike the US - has complied in good faith with the letter AND spirit of (the nuclear deal). Rhetoric and actions from US show bad faith," Zarif added.
Iran said it successfully tested the Simorgh (Phoenix) rocket which it said could put a satellite weighing up to 250 kg (550 pounds) in an orbit of 500 km (311 miles).
"The US government should abandon its continued hostile behavior and policies that show lack of faith towards the (nuclear deal)," said Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Bahram Qasemi, quoted by the state news agency IRNA.
The US Senate voted almost unanimously on Thursday to impose new sanctions on Russia, and crack down on Iran and North Korea for activities including their missile development programs.
The measure also imposes restrictions on anyone involved in Iran's ballistic missile program and those who do business with them. The sanctions also apply to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps security force.