The government’s recent decision to fund Reform and Conservative rabbis is a significant step forward on the road to equality for the different streams of Judaism in Israel. The Orthodox rabbinical establishment has habitually dismissed the Reform and Conservative movements as irrelevant. They argue that the Israeli public is not interested in what the non-Orthodox have to offer.But if non-orthodoxy is so marginal in Israel, why were the Orthodox so aggravated by the government decision? And why are they fighting it tooth and nail? This was the key question put to their representatives after the government decision. Their answers were predictable: An outpouring of self-serving rationalization laced with hatred, demagoguery and total ignorance of the thinking and activities of non-Orthodox communities in Israel and the Diaspora. But the angry tone showed that the rabbinical establishment does in fact understand that the days when they could simply dismiss the non- Orthodox movements in Israel are over.