The US Supreme Court decision to compel all 50 states to recognize the right of gay couples to marry was celebrated as a historic, reality-changing event. To a large extent it was. But anyone familiar with the gay community’s struggle for acceptance, dignity and equality knows it was the culmination of a long and often arduous process. There were two preliminary stages that made the legal and constitutional change possible: First, the evolution of a culture of political correctness in relation to the gay community and the drawing of red lines defining what is and what isn’t acceptable in public discourse. Second, the establishment of facts on the ground, which helped to shape reality and ultimately to create a mass culture in which gay couples have a dignified and respectful place.Something similar is happening with regard to the long march for acceptance of Reform and Conservative Judaism in Israel. The storm of angry reaction in early July to Religious Services Minister David Azoulay’s contention that “Reform Jews aren’t really Jews” reflects a huge shift in what Israeli opinion is prepared to tolerate.