Israel ranked 53rd out of 115 countries surveyed in the 2009 Gender Equality in Property Rights index, which was published by the Jerusalem Institute for Market Studies (JIMS) Tuesday. The index used data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Gender, Institutions and Development database. The study, which included five components measuring women's access to credit, real and non-real estate property, inheritances and social rights, found that women in Israel do not benefit from equal rights. Regarding inheritances and social rights, Israeli women scored relatively high marks, but the overall ranking was lowered by the results for the other three components. According to a JIMS press release, gender equality is generally higher in developed countries. JIMS cited Central Bureau of Statistics data showing that 16.7 percent of Israeli men were self-employed, compared to only 6.7% of Israeli women. Were women's property rights equal with men's, the statement noted, women would have more self-employment opportunities, which would benefit the Israeli economy as a whole. The group also quoted empirical studies showing that gender equality and female empowerment were "strong determinants in reducing poverty and stimulating growth." This year's index placed Finland at the top of the list, and Chad at the bottom. Israel came in behind most of Europe and North America, and even behind Turkey, which ranked 49th.