Parashat Behar: Three types of freedom

‘And you shall count for yourselves seven cycles of Sabbatical years , seven years, seven times… forty-nine years… you shall sanctify the fiftieth year and proclaim freedom throughout the land for all its inhabitants; it shall be the Jubilee year for you.’ (Lev. 25:8-10)

From the parasha - ‘... and for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food (photo credit: YORAM RAANAN)
From the parasha - ‘... and for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food
(photo credit: YORAM RAANAN)
 This commandment to count seven cycles of Sabbatical years leading up to the 50th Jubilee year of proclaiming freedom throughout the land, is clearly reminiscent of the biblical commands we read last week (parshat Emor): “Count for yourselves [from the day of your bringing the barley omer wave offering] seven complete weeks…, you shall count fifty days...,” from the day after our exodus from Egypt until the Festival of the first fruits (bikkurim), until the festival commemorating the Revelation of God’s Torah at Sinai (Lev. 23:15-17). What is the significance of this striking parallelism between the counting of the seven weeks between Passover and Shavuot and the counting of the seven sabbatical years leading up to the Jubilee year? What is the true message lying behind the daily count of sefirat ha’omer, the period which we are currently marking? This past Shabbat Hagadol (the Great Sabbath before the Festival of Passover) I analyzed the three Hebrew words which express the concept of freedom; hofesh, herut and dror. The first of these words, hofesh, appears in the Book of Exodus (21:2) in the context of the Hebrew slave leaving the homestead of his owner at the end of his sixth year of employ “completely free,” (hofshi hinam) without any obligation whatsoever to his former master. The third of these words, dror, we have just cited in our present reading of Behar, in which “freedom, dror” is to be proclaimed throughout the land on the advent of the Jubilee year. And the Festival of Passover, in celebration of our exodus from Egyptian servitude, is referred to by our Sages in our liturgy as z’man herutenu, an Aramaic word connoting freedom. Why do our Sages pass over the two biblical Hebrew words of hofesh and dror in describing our Festival of Freedom in favor of the non-biblical Aramaic word of herut? The philosopher and political theorist Eric Fromm (1900-1980) in his illuminating study Escape from Freedom, distinguishes between two types of freedom, freedom “from” and freedom “for”; the former, the mere ridding oneself of duties and obligations, will at best produce a monotonous existence of boredom, aimlessness, and sometimes even depression, or at worst lead to alcohol and drug addiction, wild licentiousness and even criminal acts of depravity. Many societies would rather succumb to a totalitarian regime of enslavement rather than risk the challenges of the responsibility of freedom.
It is from this vantage point that Viktor Frankl (1905-1997), author of From Death-Camp to Existentialism and founder of the branch of psychoanalysis which he calls “logotherapy,” insists that the most essential human drive is not a search for pleasure as Freud would maintain, or a search for power as Adler and Jung would suggest, but is rather the search for meaning, the human need to carve out a life of significance and worthwhile purpose. Freedom from enslavement must be linked indelibly with the belief of the individual that he is empowered to forge for himself a life dedicated to an important goal and purpose.
Hence our Bible begins with the creation of the world, positing that every human being is created “in the image of God,” with a portion of the Lord on High within the very essence of his being,” so that he becomes commanded (and thereby empowered) to “develop the earth and preserve it,” to “perfect the imperfect world in the Kingship of the Divine” (Genesis 1:27; 2:7, 15 and Aleinu prayer).
And by our reliving of God’s primordial week of creation during our human weekly cycle of “working the world” for six days and resting in God’s presence on the seventh, we hopefully rekindle our task to perfect the world as God’s partners every single week! And hofesh is our freedom of choice not to do whatever we wish but rather to choose good over evil, God over Satan, creation over destruction.
Hence the word dror is used to express the period of human perfection, redemption (geula), described in our Jubilee year, when all slaves will be freed, when everyone’s land will be filled with produce sufficient for all, when all debts are rescinded, when everyone will be returned to their ancestral homestead, when all the needy of the world will be sustained by their human siblings. Dror is the purpose for which Israel and humanity was created, the society and world which Israel and humanity must recreate.
And our Sages refer to the time of our liberation from Egyptian enslavement as herut, which derives from the Hebrew ahrayut, responsibility: the responsibility of freedom for, the responsibility of accepting the formidable task of partnership with the Divine, the responsibility of protecting our brothers (ah), the responsibility of protecting every stranger (aher) who is also our brother under God, the responsibility of going first and saying aharai (after me), and the responsibility of bringing the world to its aharit, final stage of redemption, the Messianic Age.
And so, as soon as we became free, do we begin to count; only for a free person does every day count, is every day fraught with infinite possibilities of productivity and meaning. And we count until we receive our Torah, which is our blueprint for the creation of a perfected world. Shabbat shalom
The writer is the founder and chancellor of Ohr Torah Stone colleges and graduate programs, currently celebrating their 30th anniversary, and chief rabbi of Efrat.