On October 30, two long rows of Nazi Party members marched to the Tiergarten in Berlin. Ernst Rohm, the commander of the Brown Shirts, was among them, as was the Berlin police commander. The men stood at attention from 11 a.m. to midnight. At some point during the day, the Nazi dignitaries and police officials paid their respects to the Turkish ambassador, whose embassy abutted the Tiergarten. It was the 10th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, and the Nazi Party wanted to give the country a special honor, just as it was on the verge of taking over Germany.Why these leading Nazis were present is the subject of a new study by Stefan Ihrig, a Polonsky fellow at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute.“For the Nazis, Turkey was not the old East, but a standard bearer for the modern nationalist and totalitarian politics that they wished to bring to Germany,” argues Ihrig in his introduction. Yet the author notes that up until now no study has examined this strange affinity that Hitler had for the Turks. The Nazi relationship with them involved a multiplicity of illusions and false readings of modern Turkey. There were misconceptions, the author says, about the role of Islam in Turkey and the nature of the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who died in 1938.