(photo credit: Courtesy)
JERUSALEM — It is well known that the emergence of India and China is casting a shadow on the developed economies of Europe and North America. Less famous is the challenge facing Israel: With the Jewish state having quietly prospered as a global haven of innovation, key players here are asking whether the Asian giants might steal their high-tech thunder.
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The laundry list of Israeli achievements is surprising for a country of just 7.6 million. The country helped give the world instant messaging, voicemail, and Internet telephony. Its nanotechnology has enabled great advances in medicine.
It boasts more companies on the technology-focused Nasdaq exchange than any place outside North America, and houses research and development centers for multinational giants like Microsoft and Intel.
But there is increasing concern that just as Asia was able to seize a dominant slice of manufacturing — as well as outsourcing basic programming and call centers — with cheap labor, so it might do with higher-level technology.
Entrepreneurs here generally seem confident that they will maintain, at least for a while, an edge in the ability to innovate — a quality Israelis ascribe to a combination of circumstances, including the need to develop military technology and a societal bent to break the rules and challenge the established order.
But with the populations of India and China each topping 1 billion, so much larger than Israel's, it's easy to see how a shift could come quickly, by dint of sheer numbers alone.
Chinese technology companies employed 9.6 million people in 2009 — 2
million more than Israel's entire population. And India graduated more
than 350,000 engineers in 2009 — more than three times the number of all
of Israel's registered engineers.
"At some point, quantity becomes quality," says Zeev Holtzman, chairman of Giza Venture Capital in Tel Aviv.
As they weigh their options, there is a distinct sense among key players
in the industry that to maintain its position in the long term, Israel
must do something differently.
Generally speaking, "many of the (Israeli) funds and many of the
startups and many of the entrepreneurs need to reinvent themselves,"
said Erel Margalit, managing partner of Jerusalem Venture Partners and
an early champion of melding tech and other disciplines. "What you did
five or 10 years ago is not novel anymore."
One emerging idea is to target the consumer: Rather than focus on
hardcore technology that only other engineers could possibly understand,
why not innovate for the end user? Essentially, why should Israel not
have a Nokia?
"When a country or companies are focused on technology as the choice of
innovation, there is a ceiling that company can reach unless it becomes a
customer-focused innovator," said Adam Fisher, an Israel-based partner
for Bessemer Venture Partners of the U.S.
For now, Israelis continue to be a magnet for the venture capital that
has helped the tech industry grow. Israeli venture funds aren't
attracting the kind of money they did a decade ago following an industry
trend, but they do hope to raise $500 million this year — more than
double the figure in 2009.
Although venture capital money can be attracted by opportunities —
meaning countries are not necessarily competing for a given pool — it is
instructive to look at recent trends.
According to Dow Jones VentureSource, which tracks the global venture
market, venture capitalists from around the world invested nearly $904
million in Israeli startups in the first nine months of 2010. Chinese
companies drew a little more than $2 billion in that same period and
Indian companies drew $710 million, the VentureSource figures show.
Israeli funds "have a challenge in recruiting follow-on funding because
of the shift in global attention to the east," said Holtzman, referring
to repeat, later stage investments.
Meanwhile, many Israeli tech companies are outsourcing programming to
India. Giza maintains an Asia office in Singapore. Ness Technologies, an
Israeli computer services outfit, has offices across India.
"Those are big markets that we need to start targeting and already are,"
said Michael Eisenberg, a partner in the Israel office of U.S.-based
Benchmark Capital. "India and China have to be a focus. There are 2.5
billion people there."