n Alois Brunner - Syria, key operative of Adolf Eichmann.
Responsible for deportation of Jews from Austria (47,000), Greece (44,000), France (23,500) and Slovakia (14,000) to Nazi death camps.
Status - living in Syria for decades; Syrian refusal to cooperate stymies prosecution efforts; convicted in absentia by France.
Alois Brunner is the most important unpunished Nazi war criminal who may still be alive, but the likelihood that he is already decreased increases with each passing year.
Born in 1912 and last seen in 2001, the chances of his being alive are relatively slim, but until conclusive evidence of his demise is obtained, he should be mentioned on any Most Wanted List of Holocaust perpetrators.
n Dr. Aribert Heim - Location unknown
Doctor in Sachsenhausen (1940), Buchenwald (1941) and Mauthausen (1941) concentration camps.
Murdered hundreds of camp inmates by lethal injection in Mauthausen.
Status - disappeared in 1962 prior to planned prosecution; wanted in Germany and Austria.
New evidence suggests that he may have died in Cairo in 1992, but serious doubts regarding these findings and the fact that there is no corpse to examine raises doubts as to the veracity of this information.
â€¢ 1. Ivan Demjanjuk - USA.
Participated in mass murder of Jews in the Sobibor death camp; also served in the Majdanek death camp and the Trawniki SS-training camp and additional concentration camps.
Status - denaturalized in USA; ordered deported; recently indicted in Germany for role in mass murder in Sobibor.
â€¢ 2. Dr. Sandor Kepiro - Hungary.
Hungarian gendarmerie officer; participated in mass murder of more than 1,200 civilians in Novi Sad, Serbia.
Status - discovered in 2006 in framework of Wiesenthal Center's "Operation: Last Chance," was originally convicted but never punished in Hungary in 1944 and apparently in absentia in 1946; Hungary refused to implement his original sentence but has opened a new criminal investigation against him which has not yet been completed more than two years after its initiation.
â€¢ 3. Milivoj Asner - Austria.
Police chief of Slavonska Pozega, Croatia. Active role in persecution and deportation to death of hundreds of Serbs, Jews, and Gypsies.
Status - discovered in 2004 in framework of Operation: Last Chance; indicted by Croatia, which in 2005 requested his extradition from Austria, which initially refused the request because he ostensibly held Austrian citizenship. When it emerged that he had lost his Austrian citizenship, his extradition was refused on medical grounds. Serious doubts as to results of his examination have prompted a decision to invite a foreign expert to reexamine Asner, but almost a year later, he still has not been reexamined.
â€¢ 4. Soeren Kam - Germany.
Participated in the murder of anti-Nazi Danish newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen; stole the population registry of the Danish Jewish Community to facilitate the roundup and subsequent deportation of Danish Jews to German concentration camps, where dozens were murdered.
Status - Kam was indicted in Denmark for the murder of Clemmensen, but a German court refused to approve his extradition to stand trial in Copenhagen. The Danish judicial authorities are conducting an investigation of his role in the deportation of the Jews at the request of the Wiesenthal Center.
â€¢ 5. Klaas Carl Faber - Germany.
Served in German SD in the Netherlands; sentenced to death in Holland for murders of prisoners at Westerbork transit camp and Groningen prison in the Netherlands in fall 1944; sentence commuted to life imprisonment in 1948; escaped from prison to Germany on December 26, 1952.
â€¢ 6. Heinrich Boere - Germany.
Murdered three Dutch civilians as a member of the Silbertanne Waffen-SS death squad.
Status - sentenced to death in absentia in the Netherlands in 1949 after his escape to Germany, which until recently refused to extradite him or prosecute him; in April 2008 indicted in Germany.
â€¢ 7. Karoly (Charles) Zentai - Australia.
Participated in manhunts, persecution and murder of Jews in Budapest in 1944. Status - discovered in 2004 by Operation: Last Chance; Hungary issued an international arrest warrant against him and has asked for his extradition from Australia in 2005; Zentai is currently appealing his extradition to Hungary.
â€¢ 8. Mikhail Gorshkow - Estonia.
Participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus.
Status: denaturalized in USA, under investigation in Estonia.
â€¢ 9. Algimantas Dailide - Germany.
Arrested Jews murdered by Nazis and Lithuanian collaborators.
Status: deported from USA; convicted by Lithuania, which refused to implement his sentence of imprisonment; upon appeal, sentence canceled on medical grounds without Dailide being examined by the doctors.
â€¢ 10. Harry Mannil - Venezuela.
Arrested Jews and Communists executed by Nazis and Estonian collaborators.
Status: cleared by investigation in Estonia; barred from entry to US.