The industrial revolution brought many benefits, such as increased productivity and a reduction in manufacturing costs. However, industries sometimes use materials that have a negative impact on workers’ health and the environment. The State of Israel has implemented regulations for dealing with these hazardous substances. For example, factories, stores, agricultural institutions, gas stations and other businesses involved in the production, storage, distribution or transport of hazardous materials are required to obtain a permit for these activities from the Environmental Protection Ministry. In 2017, Israel’s northern district received 1,310 permits, the highest number in the whole country. The next largest number was 1,138 permits, which were given in central Israel and after that southern Israel, which received 1,083 permits. Five hundred and fifty-eight permits were given in Tel Aviv and 419 in Jerusalem, areas where there is less space to build factories that produce hazardous materials. In addition, these cities have a much higher population density, making them a less than ideal location for building factories. There is a direct correlation between the number of permits given and the number of residents living in each district. In the southern district, the ratio of permits to 10,000 residents is 11.3, whereas in the northern district, the ratio is 10.6. In Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, on the other hand, the ratio is only 4.1. It is clear, then, that the sparsely populated areas in northern and southern Israel are much more suitable locations for building factories dealing with hazardous materials.It is interesting to note that 45% of businesses that received permits in the Jerusalem district are located within the city limits, which shows how prominent the city is in this district. In contrast, in Haifa, only 32% of businesses in the district that received permits are located within the city, and in Tel Aviv the number falls to 26%.Translated by Hannah Hochner.