Discover the top web design agencies in the US, specializing in AI and ML, FinTech, Education, E-commerce, and various other industries. These companies have established themselves as leading web design agencies through their impressive achievements and successful client outcomes.
As an entrepreneur embarking on a web design project, how do you select the right contractor? What criteria should you consider? Is it the number of similar projects completed by a web design company or the aesthetics of their portfolio? And if it's the latter, how do you gauge beauty? Does a high number of similar projects guarantee the chosen team will deliver unique and distinctive designs for your business?
Perhaps your criteria lie in the number of awards a particular web design agency has received. Or maybe it's the testimonials and the results they have delivered to their clients.
The answer is likely "all of the above." Every factor plays a crucial role in choosing the best web design agency to fulfill your project requirements and achieve tangible business results. That’s why we’ve prepared a list of the top web design agencies and gathered all the criteria for you to evaluate.
Choose the right design company to partner with.
Lazarev.agency is a digital product design agency that helps startups grow from Seed to Series D and beyond. The team is committed to delivering exceptional web design solutions, catering to various needs such as branding design, MVP product design, product relaunch services, website design and development, as well as creative design services like motion and 3D design.
- Year Founded: 2015
- Certifications and Awards: The Webby Awards, Red Dot Awards, FWA, Agency of the Year nominees by Awwwards, CSS.
- Services Provided: Product Strategy, MVP Design, UX Audit, Product Redesign, UI UX, Motion, 3D, Branding, Website Design & Development.
- Industries Worked In: Artificial Intelligence & ML, Fintech, Web3 & Blockchain, SaaS, Web & Mobile
- Clutch Rating: 5.0
- Team Size: 45+
- Top Clients: Accern, Hewlett-Packard, Tezos, Kin Ecosystem
- Location: New York, US
- Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Online Portfolio: Dribbble, Behance
- Social Networks: Instagram, LinkedIn, Facebook
Brights — web design and software development company. They design and develop solutions for all types of web and mobile products. The team covers all the stages like analysis, planning, design, slicing, programming, filling with content, and testing.
- Year Founded: 2011
- Certifications and Awards: ISO/IEC 27001:2013 certification, Storyblock certified partner
- Services Provided: Web, Mobile Design & Development, UX Design, UI Design, 3D Modeling, Machine Learning, Cloud Migration, Graphic Design and Illustrations, Promo Projects, and Corporate Websites.
- Industries Worked In: Artificial Intelligence & ML, Startups, Fintech development, Marketplace, Travel, Health, and Lifestyle, AR/VR
- Clutch Rating: 4.9
- Team Size: 50-200
- Top Clients: Suzuki, Kinder, Pepsi, Skoda
- Location: Warsaw, Mazowieckie
- Contact Details: email@example.com
3. Solid Digital
Solid Digital is an exceptional web and digital marketing agency that partners with B2B marketing teams to build award-winning websites that stand the test of time. These websites not only hold their value but also serve as a rock-solid foundation for a powerful digital marketing strategy.
- Year Founded: 2007
- Certifications and Awards: Top Web Design Company in 2023 by Clutch, Top Full Service Digital Company in United States in 2022 by Clutch
- Services Provided: Web Design, Digital Strategy, Search Engine Optimization, UX/UI Design
- Industries Worked In: SaaS, Software Businesses, Healthcare, Medical, Information technology, Education, Financial services, Manufacturing, Non-profit
- Clutch Rating: 4.8
- Team Size: 10-49
- Top Clients: Vevo, 6Sense, Hireology, Equity Residential
- Location: Chicago, United States
- Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ramotion is a dynamic digital product and brand agency that specializes in a wide range of services. Their expertise encompasses digital product design, development, visual brand identity, and UI/UX design. Fortune 500 companies and thriving Silicon Valley startups alike turn to them for their exceptional skills and creativity.
- Year Founded: 2009
- Services Provided: Web Design, UX/UI Design, Branding
- Industries Worked In: Consumer products & Services, Financial services, Information technology, eCommerce, Business services, Retail
- Clutch Rating: 4.9
- Team Size: 10-49
- Top Clients: Adobe, Stripe, Descript, Bitmoji
- Location: San Francisco, United States
- Contact Details: email@example.com
5. Thrive Design
Thrive Design is a passionate web design agency dedicated to creating extraordinary digital experiences for growing businesses in Seattle. The team explores their customers’ goals, solve their challenges, and provide end-to-end solutions — from technical details to content, photography, and design.
- Year Founded: 2002
- Certifications and Awards: Best SEO Company by DesignRush, National Excellence 2022, Top Web Design Company by Clutch.
- Services Provided: Web Design, Search Engine Optimization, Branding, Wordpress Support, Website Maintenance.
- Industries Worked In: Financial services, Business services, Consumer products & services, Dental, Legal, Medical.
- Clutch Rating: 5.0
- Team Size: 2-9
- Top Clients: ACT Capital Advisors, Truce Law, Natural Creations, Neo Moving
- Location: Edmonds, United States
- Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
6. League Design Agency
League Design Agency comprises a passionate team of engineers infused with artistic flair. They adeptly tackle design challenges, encompassing both graphic and digital realms. Their unwavering commitment to business and its success drives the team to optimize design investments for maximum returns.
- Year Founded: 2017
- Certifications and Awards: 12 featured projects on Behance, 2 gold on The Very Best Of
- Services Provided: Brand strategy, Brand Identity, Digital design, Content design
- Industries Worked In: Medical, Education, eCommerce, Information technology, GPS, Navigation & GIS
- Clutch Rating: 5.0
- Team Size: 10-49
- Top Clients: Skvot, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Telescope Live, Vivadogs
- Location: Kyiv, Ukraine
- Contact Details: email@example.com
Qubstudio is a dynamic digital product design and branding agency. They specialize in empowering digital-first companies to thrive, catering to all their design requirements from early startup to the scalable enterprise stage.
- Year Founded: 2006
- Certifications and Awards: The Red Dot Awards, UX Design Awards, Top Design Agency by Clutch
- Services Provided: Digital product design, Web design, Branding
- Industries Worked In: Financial services, Business services, Education, Information technology, Medical, Advertising & marketing
- Clutch Rating: 4.9
- Team Size: 50+
- Top Clients: Oracle, Scoutbee, Go To-U, AXA
- Location: London, England
- Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
8. Gapsy Studio
Gapsy Studio is a passionate team of design enthusiasts. Established in 2017, the agency's mission is to tackle business challenges through custom design solutions. Their impeccable design process and efficient project management ensure minimal errors during project execution.
- Year Founded: 2017
- Services Provided: Mobile design, Website design, Graphic design, Motion design, Branding
- Industries Worked In: Financial services, eCommerce
- Clutch Rating: 5.0
- Team Size: 10-49
- Top Clients: Walcrypto, Footplace, Yono, Bookit me
- Location: Dnipro, Ukraine
- Contact Details: email@example.com
9. Solar Digital
Solar Digital is a growth-focused design agency dedicated to assisting small and medium businesses in streamlining their operations, scaling efficiently, and automating processes. Through result-oriented development, the team crafts software solutions that not only leave users in awe but also have a significant impact on businesses.
- Year Founded: 2016
- Certifications and Awards: 6x The Very Best Of, 9x Special Kudos, 7x Honorable Mention at awwwards
- Services Provided: Branding, UI/UX Design, Corporate Websites, Mobile App Design, MVP for Startups
- Industries Worked In: Hospitality & leisure, Supply Chain, Logistics, and Transport, Business services, Financial services, Media, Real estate
- Clutch Rating: 4.9
- Team Size: 10-49
- Top Clients: Stark Shipping, Sailica, Firusas, IndiGem, Roped UP
- Location: London, England
- Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
Excited is the award-winning product design agency based in Lviv. They're masters at crafting exceptional experiences and designing user interfaces that cater to all kinds of devices – be it Web, Desktop, Mobile, or SaaS.
- Year Founded: 2018
- Certifications and Awards: Red Dot Awards, CSS Design Awards, W3 Awards, awwwards
- Services Provided: UX/UI Design, Rapid Prototyping, Website Production, User Research, Visual Identity
- Industries Worked In: Financial services, Information technology, Medical, Consumer products & services, Hospitality & leisure, eCommerce
- Clutch Rating: 5.0
- Team Size: 10-49
- Top Clients: Milkstork, Builddirect, ClubReady, Verida, Xilo
- Location: Lviv, Ukraine
- Contact Details: email@example.com
Why is great web design important?
In today's dynamic digital landscape, the significance of remarkable web design cannot be overstated. Many may question the importance of UI UX design in the face of cutting-edge technologies like Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain. While such technologies undoubtedly play crucial roles, they alone cannot surpass the impact of impeccable custom web design. In this discourse, we shall explore the reasons why great web design is a critical factor for business triumph.
Establishing Professionalism and Building Trust: A meticulously crafted website, mobile application, or SaaS platform is a testament to your commitment to professionalism and quality. It instills a sense of confidence in customers, as they perceive your dedication to delivering a superior user experience. The first impression often shapes their perception, making a polished web design an invaluable asset in cultivating trust and credibility. In contrast, a poorly designed interface may inadvertently convey an untrustworthy or outdated image, deterring potential clients from engaging with your business.
Optimizing Conversion Rates: A well-crafted website places user experience at the forefront, streamlining the customer journey and guiding visitors towards desired actions. Thoughtfully placed call-to-action buttons, intuitive navigation, and persuasive design elements work harmoniously to boost conversion rates. The seamless fusion of design and functionality creates an environment conducive to conversions, ultimately contributing to the achievement of your business objectives.
Fostering Customer Loyalty: A responsive design plays a pivotal role in cultivating customer loyalty. By offering an optimized browsing experience across various devices, you enhance user satisfaction and retention. A satisfied and engaged customer is more inclined to return for future interactions and transactions. A customer-centric web design solidifies relationships and fosters brand loyalty, which is a key ingredient for sustained success in today's competitive landscape.
Encouraging Engagement and Reducing Bounce Rates: A good web designer exerts a magnetic pull on visitors, enticing them to explore your content and spend more time on your platform. Engaged visitors are more likely to undertake desired actions and eventually convert into loyal customers. Furthermore, a well-designed website minimizes bounce rates, ensuring that visitors stay engaged and remain receptive to your offerings.
What Makes a Web Designer Great?
A fantastic web designer does more than just create websites with stunning visuals; they deliver tangible business results. They understand the intricacies of human perception and the principles of web design and apply them skillfully. Let's explore the key qualities and skills that define a great UI UX designer:
Business Understanding: A top-notch web designer takes the time to grasp the client's business goals, target audience, and competitive landscape. They collaborate closely with stakeholders to ensure the website design aligns with broader business objectives. By understanding the client's industry and unique value proposition, they can create a web design that effectively communicates the brand message and drives desired actions.
Articulating Design Solutions: As author Tom Greever brilliantly put it in his book "Articulating Design Decisions," the mark of a great designer lies in their ability to articulate design solutions convincingly. They can clearly explain why their presented design is superior to alternatives and effectively communicate their vision to stakeholders.
Conversion Optimization: A great web designer understands the principles of conversion rate optimization and human psychology. They skillfully apply this knowledge to their designs, strategically using visual hierarchy and placing visible call-to-action buttons. They optimize forms and checkout processes and create persuasive design elements that encourage users to take specific actions. Their designs are aimed at maximizing conversions and driving tangible business results, such as increased sales, leads, or subscriptions.
SEO Considerations: A top-tier UI UX designer recognizes the significance of search engine optimization (SEO) and seamlessly incorporates SEO best practices into their designs. They prioritize page load speed, even if it means foregoing heavy visuals or animations. By considering SEO during the design phase, they enhance the website's visibility in search engine rankings, attracting organic traffic and potential customers.
What is a web design company?
A web design company is a specialized studio or business that excels in crafting and designing web interfaces. These companies come in various sizes, ranging from solo freelance designers (also known as solopreneurs) to large agencies with multiple talented team members. The size doesn't define a web design company; instead, it's all about their expertise and focus on delivering top-notch web design services.
Top web design companies offer an array of services related to website design creation and web development. Here are some of the web design services they provide:
Custom Website Design and Web Development: At the heart of a website design company's offerings is the creation of visually captivating and custom websites. They handle everything from designing the site's layout, user interface (UI), and user experience (UX) to coding and programming to make the design come to life.
Product Design: In addition to crafting landing pages, web design agencies lend their expertise to MVP launching, product relaunch, marketplace design, mobile app design, and more. They often focus on SaaS or web applications, with strategists, researchers, business analysts, and product managers on board to work with digital products.
E-commerce Design: Many website design companies excel at creating ecommerce websites, assisting businesses in establishing online stores or marketplaces to sell products and services. They handle the design and web development of online stores, integrate payment gateways, and implement inventory management systems.
Graphic Design and Branding: Web design companies may also offer graphic design services, including logo design, branding elements, and visual assets for their clients' new website, digital products, or digital marketing campaigns.
How is the best web design agency different from a PR, marketing, or web development firm?
A web design agency plays a central role in crafting visually captivating and functional websites and interfaces for their clients. Their talented designers use tools like Figma to create mock-ups and bring creative ideas to life.
On the other hand, digital marketing and PR agencies have a different focus. Their primary goal is to promote brands or businesses through various means, including advertising, public relations, content marketing, and social media management. While web design agencies may incorporate some branding and marketing elements into their services, their main expertise remains in website design, and they typically don't venture into areas like advertising campaigns or social media strategies.
Web development firms, on the other hand, specialize in the technical aspects of website and product building. Their expertise lies in programming languages, server-side development, database integration, and front-end and back-end functionality. Web design companies usually don't handle web development tasks directly, but they ensure a smooth collaboration with web developers and conduct efficient quality assurance sessions after their designs are brought to life.
How much does website design from the best web design studios cost?
The cost of website design from the best web design agencies can vary significantly based on several factors. These factors include the complexity of the project, the size and reputation of the web design company, the level of customization required, the project deadline, and the specific features or visualization needed. Overall, the companies from the list above price website design from $ 10,000 to $ 30,000. Here are some general cost considerations:
Project Scope: The complexity and scale of the website design project play a crucial role in determining the cost. A simple brochure-style website with a few pages and basic features, or a straightforward landing page, will generally be more budget-friendly compared to a robust e-commerce website with advanced functionalities and custom integrations.
Customization and Complexity: Websites that require extensive customization, unique design elements, intricate 3D or animation work, or complex third-party integrations usually involve more work and, consequently, higher costs. But remember that custom-tailored and exclusive sites designed specifically for your brand may come with a higher price tag than using pre-designed templates.
Content Creation: If you need assistance with content creation, such as copywriting or video production, there may be additional costs involved. Many web design companies have in-house experts who can fulfill these needs, or they may collaborate with partner resources, which can factor into the overall project cost.
Reputation and Expertise of the Web Design Company: The reputation and expertise of the web design company can also impact the cost. Specialized companies with a niche focus, such as those excelling in e-commerce design for beauty shops, may charge higher rates than general web design companies. Established and highly regarded web design company, with a proven track record of excellence may also command higher rates due to the quality of their services.
Remember, investing in a top web design company often pays off in the form of a stunning and high-performing website that elevates your brand and drives business success.
How long does website design from a top web design company take?
Overall, the entire web design process of creating an average website takes from 3-6 weeks. The duration of website projects from a top web design firm can vary depending on several factors, including the scope of work, complexity of the project, and specific requirements. Here is a general timeline range, but it can vary:
Small to Medium-Sized Projects: For a small custom website with relatively simple design requirements, the process can typically range from 3 to 6 weeks. This timeline usually covers the phases of initial consultation, sitemap creation, design concept creation, revisions, and testing.
Large-Scale or Complex Projects: Larger websites with more complex design elements, custom functionalities, or extraordinary web structure may require a longer timeline. These projects can take anywhere from 6 weeks to several months to complete, depending on the scale and complexity involved. It may involve additional phases such as UX research, user testing, and multiple iterations of design and development.
Should I hire a top web design company?
The answer depends on your needs. Hiring a top web design company with experienced web designers on boards is a wise decision that can save you from potential pitfalls and headaches. While taking on a web design project yourself may seem like a cost-effective option, it often leads to subpar results that may not align with your vision and goals.
But, if you're a good website designer besides being an awesome entrepreneur and want to have everything under control –– you can go without web designers. The decision should be based on your priorities.
We'd offer you to explore several reasons why choosing a top web design company is a good choice. And your task is to consider whether the reasons are reasonable and applicable to your situation.
Professional Expertise: A top website design agency has at least one professional web designer with a wealth of experience and skills in creating stunning and functional website design. If your in-house team does not have a proven record of the same expertise, you'd better hire someone.
Time and Efficiency: Web design can be time-consuming, especially if you lack the necessary expertise. By hiring a professional web design company, you free up your time to focus on your core business activities while professionals handle the design process efficiently.
Avoid Costly Mistakes: DIY web design can lead to mistakes and oversights that might not be apparent until website development. Correcting these errors can be costly and time-consuming on the later stages or after launch. Best web design companies minimize the risk of mistakes and ensure a smoother, error-free process
Technical Excellence: The best web design company has a deep understanding of technical aspects, including website development, search engine optimization, and browser compatibility. This ensures that your website performs optimally and loads quickly, enhancing user satisfaction and search engine rankings.
How do I hire the best web design agencies?
Hiring the best web design firm requires a thoughtful approach to ensure you find a company that aligns with your needs, budget, and goals. There are also multiple places where to find top web design companies. To make the process easier, you can leverage the list above.Anyway, the process is complex. So to help you select the right web design firm, we’ve gathered the tips:
Define Your Project Requirements: Begin with clearly outlining your project requirements first for yourself. That way, you will know how website's objectives, functionality requirements, and design preferences and will be able to communicate it to the web design firm. Understanding your project's scope will help potential firms provide accurate proposals.
Research and Shortlist Firms: Visit listings or platforms like Clutch to conduct thorough research. Identify then web design firms that address your criteria - whether you’re making a choice based on the price, quality of work, timeline, client’s feedback or other criteria. We’d offer you to look for firms with experience in your industry or those that have worked on projects similar to yours. As a final step, create a shortlist of potential candidates.
Contact the chosen web design firms: Reach out to the firms you shortlisted. When discussing the project's cost, be open about your limitations/preferences.
Request Proposals: As a result of negotiations, request detailed proposals from 2-3 of the best web design agencies you talked to. Provide them with your project requirements and ask for a breakdown of their approach, timeline, deliverables, and estimated costs.
Ask for referrals: Once you’re close to making the final decisions, ask their past clients or check testimonials to gauge their overall satisfaction with the firm's web design services.
Finalize the Contract: Once you've negotiated and agreed upon the terms, review the contract carefully before signing. Ensure it includes all the agreed-upon deliverables, timelines, and payment terms.
Remember, the "best" web design firm for you will depend on your specific project requirements, budget, and the firm's expertise and track record. Take your time, compare your options, and choose the one that offers the best fit for your needs.
What questions should I ask a leading web design agency?
During the negotiation process with a web design agency, asking the right questions will help you gain valuable insights into their capabilities, approach, and suitability for your project. Here are some essential questions to ask:
The first question to ask when a shortlisted web design agency presents its portfolio is: What would you change in this design?If the presenter is sure that their work is perfect with no flaws, that’s a red flag. Because there are always better alternatives. Moreover, if the project was completed long before, with the design trends changing, there is always something to change.
What is your typical web design process, from discovery to launch? How do you involve clients throughout the project?
Can you explain your approach to user experience (UX) design and how you ensure a user-friendly interface?
How do you handle search engine optimization considerations during the design process to optimize the website for search engines?
How do you handle revisions and changes to the design during the development process? Is there a limit to the number of revisions?
How do you handle website updates and upgrades in the future? Can you accommodate potential scaling requirements?
How do you handle communication and project updates? Will I have a dedicated point of contact?
Of course, that’s not all the questions you might ask during the meeting or phone call. Yet, that’s the list of desired questions, the answers to which will give you clarity. Moreover, they will help you gauge the web design agency's expertise, professionalism, and ability to meet your specific requirements.
How to evaluate the portfolio of a web design agency if I understand nothing about design?
Evaluating the portfolio of a web design agency can feel challenging if you have a limited understanding of design. But, in fact, you do not need to be a designer to make an informed assessment. Here are the non-design factors to consider when choosing the right web design agency.
Responsiveness: If you're talking with a full-service digital agency that also offers development services, then consider responsive design criteria. View the website they present you on different devices, such as a desktop computer, tablet, and smartphone. If you notice any imperfections, the user experience could be designed better.
Load Times: Note how quickly the portfolio websites load. A well-optimized website should load promptly, as slow load times can lead to user frustration and impact search engine rankings. All website design agencies should consider this factor. If not - that's a red flag for you.
Clear Messaging: One of the tasks of a website design company is to create a website that would communicate the messaging and guide website users to the desired action. Assess whether the websites effectively communicate their purpose and the brand's message. Look for clear calls to action and messaging. If you open a site and can grasp what it's all about - that's a good website design.
Functionality: Check if the websites have the necessary functionalities, such as contact forms if it's a B2B site, search bars if you're viewing e-commerce websites, or interactive elements if you're on entertainment sites. Professional website design company always considers business requirements and market specifications.
Will the best website design agency create award-winning designs?
While hiring the best website designers certainly increases the chances of creating an award-winning design, it's important to understand that the concept of an "award-winning design" can be subjective and depends on various factors.
Whether custom web design receives awards or not depends on various factors, including the specific design competition's criteria, the uniqueness of the project, the judges' preferences, and the alignment of the design to the awards' requirements.
On the other side, the best web design company often have a track record of delivering high-quality designs that align with their clients' goals and brand identities. They excel in creating user-friendly and functional websites that provide exceptional user experiences.
Some designs may not participate in competitions, but they can still be considered outstanding and effective for the client's specific needs.
FAQ About Finding a TOP Web Design Company
Having read all the info about the best web design companies and the peculiarities of launching a web design, you have more chances to find the best web design company and successfully launch your project. Yet, if you have unanswered questions about website design agencies, we've got a pull of short replies here.
How much do websites cost in 2023?
Here's a rough breakdown of website cost ranges based on the complexity of websites:
Basic/Static Website: A simple and often templated website with a few pages and basic design elements could cost anywhere from $1000 to $3,000 or more.
Small Business Website: A website for a small business online, with a few pages of content and custom design, might range from $3,000 to $10,000 or more.
E-Commerce Website: The cost of an e-commerce website can vary greatly depending on the number of products, payment gateways, inventory management systems, and other features. It could range from $10,000 to $20,000 or more.
Enterprise-Level Websites: Large-scale websites for corporations or organizations with extensive features, high levels of interactivity, and advanced security measures can cost well into the six-figure range.
Where are the best web design companies located?
Best web design firms can be found all around the world. Of course, there are countries where there are the most internet marketing agencies, web development companies, and the best web design companies. These include the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and parts of Europe. Many companies also operate remotely, expanding the options beyond geographical locations. So it's up to you to decide whether you need a local team or a remote one.
How to evaluate the work of a web design agency?
The most effective way to evaluate the performance of a web design company is by examining the tangible business results their work generates. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as increased website traffic, improved conversion rates, higher engagement metrics, and enhanced user experience directly reflect the agency's impact on your business and other aspects such as improved social media marketing or keyword research (SEO).
What's the usual web design process?
Planning and Research: Gather requirements, conduct research, and define project objectives.
Design and Development: Create wireframes and mockups, then develop the visual design and responsive layout. Develop both frontend and backend functionality.
Testing, Launch, and Evaluation: Test the website for functionality, compatibility, and performance. Launch the site, monitor its performance, and evaluate design impact on business goals.
What happens if a web design project runs over schedule?
Delays in Launch: A postponed website launch can disrupt marketing plans and time-sensitive campaigns.
Higher Costs: Extended timelines can lead to increased project expenses due to extra hours and resources required.
Worse Results: Delays, especially in innovative industries like AI where the competition is high, can cause a business to be behind competitors.
Is web designer in high demand?
Yes, web designers are in high demand since more and more businesses are moving online. The increasing need for competitive websites has led to a consistent demand for skilled web designers.
Choosing the perfect design agency for your project can indeed feel like a challenging task. Thankfully, platforms like Design Rush, Clutch, and other listings can make the process much smoother. That's precisely why we've put together our list of top design agencies—to assist you in finding the right fit.
While seeking advice from others and considering their experiences is valuable, it's essential not to rely solely on it. Instead, engage in open negotiations with various companies. Through thoughtful discussions, you can identify the ideal partner to entrust with your website design project. Remember, finding the right design agency is a crucial step toward bringing your vision to life and achieving your project goals. Happy hunting!
This article was co-authored with Anhelina Hromova