Josh is an eight-year-old third grader whose parents are very upset with their son’s behavior. His teachers complain that Josh talks all the time in school, and can never wait his turn when standing in line for any activity. He cannot stay seated and seems to be constantly bothering other pupils. He regularly blurts out answers before his teacher has a chance to finish asking the question. Josh’s mother feels like her son is giving her a nervous breakdown. He does not listen to any of her demands, and seems to ignore or forget her requests. Karen is a fourth-grade pupil. She does not bother anyone and sits quietly in her seat. Her teacher is very concerned because she never completes any of her homework. Her friends describe her as a space cadet. In fact, when her mother asks her, she often states that she does not remember that her teacher had given her any homework. Josh and Karen have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They are not alone. ADHD is the most common developmental disorder of childhood, affecting 3% to 7% of children and often continuing into adulthood. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V-TR 2013) identifies three patterns of behavior that indicate ADHD. There is the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (Josh), the predominantly inattentive type that does not show significant hyperactive-impulsive behavior (Karen) and the combined type (that displays both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms).