On September 27, Turkish-backed Azerbaijan launched a military operation to regain control of the disputed territories of Nagorno-Karabakh.
Erdogan referred to the Ottoman Empire's rule over Jerusalem, which lasted four centuries (1517-1917), to justify his claim.
ISIS was so successful in 2014 in part because Turkey's President Erdoğan is a vocal supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Although Iran and Turkey have collaborated recently, the two authoritarian states often find themselves on conflicting sides of regional clashes.
The US State Department pointed out that Hamas is a designated terrorist organization and that the officials that Erdoğan met with are “special designated global terrorists.”
Given its strategic location, the Eastern Mediterranean has historically been a point of conflict since antiquity.
The Hagia Sophia, an architectural masterpiece in Turkey, has been both a church and a mosque over the centuries, but since 1935 it served a strictly secular use as a museum.