A new species of frog was identified in South America, according a study published last month.
Previously, the frog was confused with a similar species, but new research has conclusively shown it to be a different species.
In the paper, which was published in the peer-reviewed European Journal of Taxonomy, researchers showed that the newly identified species, called Adenomera guarani, was significantly different enough from Adenomera diptyx to be considered a separate species.
The two species A. guarani and A. diptyx have long been confused but it was A. guarani's unique call that drew researchers to investigate it.
The main difference is that A. guarani's call occurs at a much lower rate than A. diptyx's call, 73–147 per minute and 176–299 per minute respectively.
But that is not the only difference. A. guarani also has very slightly different coloration patterns. In particular, it has an orange coloration on its side and a dark "mask-like" coloration between its eyes.
The final piece of evidence is DNA. Researchers found that A. guarani had a genetic distance from A. diptyx of between 6.7 to 7.9%, showing that the differences were more than just skin deep. For comparison, chimpanzees and humans have a genetic distance of 1.2%, according to the American Museum of Natural History.
What's in a name
The researchers decided to name the newly discovered species after the indigenous Guaraní people who inhabit the area native to the frog.
The native area of the frog covers the basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers as well as the Pantanal wetlands, covering the whole of Paraguay. It inhabits parts of Argentina and Brazil as well as reaching up to the border between Bolivia and Brazil.
The Guaraní people inhabit the same region and, in the past, lived in the same wild regions as the frog. Today, however, most live in cities. Their culture and language have had a deep impact on Paraguay and the surrounding areas, giving names to many geographical features, animals, plants, towns, and cities.